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Which of the following is not necessary for well-developed karst to develop?
A.high proportion of calcium carbonate in the rock
B.joints in rock of low permeability
C.vegetation
D.arid conditions

D

The belief that disasters have produced most of the major features of Earth is called
A.uniformitarianism.
B.isostasy.
C.metastable thresholds.
D.catastrophism.

D

On average, how often would you expect an earthquake of between moment magnitude 5.0-5.9 and Mercalli V-VII to occur?
A.120 times a year
B.800 times a year
C.once every few years
D.once or twice a century

B

Which of the following is an example of a second order of relief?
A.the continental platforms
B.individual mountains and cliffs
C.the Canadian and American Rockies
D.the ocean basins

C

The boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithospheric upper mantle is a discontinuity known as the
A.Gutenberg.
B.mantle.
C.Moho.
D.lithospheric layer.

C

Transform faults along plate boundaries are typically found
A.sea-floor spreading centers.
B.collision zones between plates.
C.lateral motions of plates.
D.both A and C

D

Which of the following is an example of a first order of relief?
A.the Alps and Rockies
B.the Tibetan Plateau
C.the Shenandoah Valley
D.an ocean basin

D

Consider a swamp along the calm backwaters of a river flowing through a flat landscape. Given the nature of this environment, which of the following sediments would be least likely to be deposited there?
A.gravel
B.sand
C.silt
D.clay

A

An example of chemical weathering is
A.exfoliation.
B.the breakdown of rocks by freezing and thawing.
C.the wearing away of a stream bank by a river.
D.karst topography.

D

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth, from the surface to the center?
A.crust, core, lower mantle, aesthenosphere
B.aesthenosphere, lower mantle, crust, core
C.crust, lower mantle, aesthenosphere, core
D.crust, aesthenosphere, lower mantle, core

D

Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
A.endogenic - internal processes
B.exogenic - external processes
C.radioactive decay heat - exogenic energy source
D.weathering - exogenic breaking and dissolving the crust

C

Warping produces bends in rocks that are __________ those produced by folding.
A.larger than
B.smaller than
C.the same size as

A

The area at the surface directly above the subsurface location where seismic waves are initiated is termed the
A.epicenter.
B.fault area.
C.Richter zone.
D.focus, or hypocenter.

A

After a threshold is crossed, the landscape
A.remains unstable thereafter.
B.adjusts to a new equilibrium condition.
C.looks identical to the landscape that existed prior to the crossing of the threshold.
D.Any of the above are equally likely to occur.

B

A rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to as
A.sedimentary.
B.metamorphic.
C.igneous.
D.basalt.

B

Folded layers of rock can form a wavelike pattern of troughs and crests. The layers near the trough form
A.a syncline.
B.a tension zone.
C.an anticline.
D.a thrust fault.

A

Tectonic forces
A.erode the surface of Earth.
B.warp, fold, and uplift rock.
C.control soil formation processes.
D.form sedimentary rock.

B

At which of the following locations does subduction occur?
A.along collision zones between two continents
B.at sea floor spreading zones
C.above mantle hot spots
D.along collision zones between continental and oceanic plates

D

The heat that drives the tectonic cycle is derived from
A.nuclear fusion.
B.radioactive decay.
C.chemical reactions.
D.sunlight.

B

Ocean floor subducts under continents because
A.the ocean floor has a lower density and therefore sinks more easily.
B.the ocean floor is made of felsic minerals and is heavier than continental material.
C.the ocean floor is made of mafic material and is therefore more dense than continental material.
D.the weight of the continents is so great that they push the ocean floor material downward.

C

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