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Antonvon Leuwenhook

First to observe microorganisms using a simle microscope. Observed a variety of specimens and described them by calling them animacules

Pasteur

Ended the debate with his experiments. Demonstrated that microorganisms are everywhere.
-Fermentation, Pasterization
-Created ANthrax VAccine

Koch

Proved microorganisms caused dusease. Introduced Kochs postules

Jenner

Developed the practice of infecting people with the viruse of the mild disease cowpox

Ehrlich

Dreamed of magic bullet that could hunt and destroy a pathogen without hurting the host

Fleming

Discovered Penicillin by accident

Spontaneous Generation

A belief that some form of life can arise from nonliving matter.

Biogenesis

Life could only be created by pre-exsisting life

Germ Theory

Theory that all contagious disease are caused by microorganisms

Attenuatiton

Weaking in force or intensity

Chemotherapy

Treatment of disease, cancer by use of chemical drugs

Mycology

Study of Fungi

Virology

Study of viruses

Parasitology

Study of parastic organisms

Immunology

Study of immunity

Beneficial Activites by microbes

Medicine-Antibiotics
Biotechnology
Ecology
Food-
Health- Helps our digestive system

Bioremediation

Use of microorganisms metabolism to remove pollutants. Using organisms to clean up oil spills. Removes polluntants from soil and water.

Biotechnology

Involves use of living organisms and bioprocessing in engineering technology.

Brewing, baking, cheesemaking

Limits that occure with Compound microscopes

Wave length of visable light. Limits size of object.
Objects cannot be seen if smaller than 1/2 wave length

Types of microscopes

Brightfield - used to observe morphology of bacteria
Darkfield - unstained. Used for observing spirchetes
Phase-contrast - unstained living microrganisms
Flourescence - Used to dectect microbes in cells.
Transmission -Specimen viewed on screen
Scanning - Examining surface features of cells and viruses

How to prepare specimens

1. Make smear (air dry)
2.Heat fix (attatch bacteria to slide)
3.Stain (Basic or Acidic)

Simple Stain

Decets presence of bacteria and morphology (shape and size)

Differential stain

Gram stain to differentiate bacteria into gram+ gram-. Acid fast (TB test)

Special Stain

Used to distinguised parts of the cell. Capsule, endospore, flagella

Define Procaryote

10xs smaller Bacteria/Archae. Single celled organism that neither has a distinct nucleus with membrane or other secial organelle. Always has chromosomes

Define Eukaryotic

Has multicellular with membrance bound nuclei. Very complex structure compared to Prokaryotic cells

Positive cell walls

Consists of several layers of peptidoglycan which form thick ridgid structure

Negative cell wall

Thinner more complex and more easily brokendown mechanically

Atypical Cell wall

Mycoplasma
Myobacteria

Mycoplasm

Tiny bacteria. No cell wall. Hve sterols

Mycobacteria

Has cell wall. SImilar to gram positive
-Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis
-M. Lepral causes leprosy

Bacterial Reproduction

By Binary Fission

Classification

Plants
Animals
Fungi - mold yeasts
Monera - prokaryotes, bacteria
Protists - slime molds

Tax Hierarchy

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Prion

Abnormal protein particle. Cases Cj disease

Viroid

Infectious entity affecting plants. Smaller than virus. Hep D?

Viruses

Nonliving cell. Must have host.DNA OR RNA not both

Latent virus

Herpes simplex virus is an example.
Ability to stay dorment within a cell

Nutrional requirments

Chemohetertroph-HUmans, glucose, acetate
Phototrophs: Bacteria use inorganic compound
-Co2 uses light as energy
-Cheniautrophs: Uses carbon dioxide
-Hydrogen sulfate
-Only in ocean Bacteria

Rod Shape

Bacillus
Large Rod
Links

Spherical

Coccus
Cluster

Sphiral

Loose
single

Coccobacillus

Very short rod. Always single

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