First to observe microorganisms using a simle microscope. Observed a variety of specimens and described them by calling them animacules
Ended the debate with his experiments. Demonstrated that microorganisms are everywhere.
-Created ANthrax VAccine
Proved microorganisms caused dusease. Introduced Kochs postules
Developed the practice of infecting people with the viruse of the mild disease cowpox
Dreamed of magic bullet that could hunt and destroy a pathogen without hurting the host
Discovered Penicillin by accident
A belief that some form of life can arise from nonliving matter.
Life could only be created by pre-exsisting life
Theory that all contagious disease are caused by microorganisms
Weaking in force or intensity
Treatment of disease, cancer by use of chemical drugs
Study of Fungi
Study of viruses
Study of parastic organisms
Study of immunity
Beneficial Activites by microbes
Health- Helps our digestive system
Use of microorganisms metabolism to remove pollutants. Using organisms to clean up oil spills. Removes polluntants from soil and water.
Involves use of living organisms and bioprocessing in engineering technology.
Brewing, baking, cheesemaking
Limits that occure with Compound microscopes
Wave length of visable light. Limits size of object.
Objects cannot be seen if smaller than 1/2 wave length
Types of microscopes
Brightfield - used to observe morphology of bacteria
Darkfield - unstained. Used for observing spirchetes
Phase-contrast - unstained living microrganisms
Flourescence - Used to dectect microbes in cells.
Transmission -Specimen viewed on screen
Scanning - Examining surface features of cells and viruses
How to prepare specimens
1. Make smear (air dry)
2.Heat fix (attatch bacteria to slide)
3.Stain (Basic or Acidic)
Decets presence of bacteria and morphology (shape and size)
Gram stain to differentiate bacteria into gram+ gram-. Acid fast (TB test)
Used to distinguised parts of the cell. Capsule, endospore, flagella
10xs smaller Bacteria/Archae. Single celled organism that neither has a distinct nucleus with membrane or other secial organelle. Always has chromosomes
Has multicellular with membrance bound nuclei. Very complex structure compared to Prokaryotic cells
Positive cell walls
Consists of several layers of peptidoglycan which form thick ridgid structure
Negative cell wall
Thinner more complex and more easily brokendown mechanically
Atypical Cell wall
Tiny bacteria. No cell wall. Hve sterols
Has cell wall. SImilar to gram positive
-M. Lepral causes leprosy
By Binary Fission
Fungi - mold yeasts
Monera - prokaryotes, bacteria
Protists - slime molds
Abnormal protein particle. Cases Cj disease
Infectious entity affecting plants. Smaller than virus. Hep D?
Nonliving cell. Must have host.DNA OR RNA not both
Herpes simplex virus is an example.
Ability to stay dorment within a cell
Chemohetertroph-HUmans, glucose, acetate
Phototrophs: Bacteria use inorganic compound
-Co2 uses light as energy
-Cheniautrophs: Uses carbon dioxide
-Only in ocean Bacteria
Very short rod. Always single