Rhetorical and Stylistic Decices

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AP Lang work

Ad hominem

Latin for "against the man". An argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, feeling rather than intellect

Allegory

a story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning.

Alliteration

the repetition of the same sounds- usually initial consonants of words.

Assonance

the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in the syllables of neighboring words.

Consonance

the repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighboring words whose vowel sounds are usually different.

Allusion

An indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work,the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader's familiarity with what is thus mentioned

Ambiguity

multiple meanings either intentional or unintentional, of a word , phrase, sentence, or passage.

Anachronism

a person, scene, event, or other element that fails to correspond with the appropriate time or era.

Analogy

illustration of an idea by means of a more familiar idea that is similar or parallel to it in some significant features

Anaphora

A rhetorical figure of repetition in which the same word or phrase is repeated in 9andusually at the beginning of) successive lines, clauses, or sentences.

Epistrophe

a rhetorical figure by which the same word or phrase is repeated at the end of successive sentences.

Antecedent

the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.

Anti-hero

a central character in a dramatic or narrative work who lacks the qualities of nobility and magnanimity expected of traditional heroes and heroines in romances and epics.

Antithesis

A rhetorical opposition or contrast of ideas by means of a grammatical arrangement of words, clauses,or sentences, as in the following: "They promised freedom but provided slavery"

Aphorism

a statement of some general principle, expressed memorably by condensing much wisdom into few words.

Apology

in the literary sense, a justification or defense of the writer's opinions or conduct, not usually implying any admission of blame(as in the everyday use).

Apostrophe

a rhetorical figure in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person, or an abstraction or inanimate object.

Asyndeton

a formal of verbal compression which consists of the omission of connecting words between clauses. the most common form is the omission of "and,"leading on a sequence linked by commas

Bathos

Insincere or overdone sentimentality

Circumlocution

talking around a subject; i.e. discourse that avoids direct reference to a subject.

Colloquialism

the use of informal expressions appropriate to everyday speech rather than to the formality of writhing

Comic Relief

The interruption of a serious work by humor.

Connotation

The range of further associations that a word or phrase suggests in addition to its straightforward dictionary meaning.

Denotation

The explicit or direct meaning or set of meanings of a word or expression, as distinguished form the ideas or meanings associated with it or suggested by it.

Diatribe

A bitter verbal or written attack on somebody or something.

Diction

The choice of words used in a written work.

Didactic

A term used to describe fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.

Effusive

Giving or involving an extravagant and sometimes excessive expression of feelings in speech or writing; unrestrained in expressing feelings.

Epigram

A concise but ingenious, witty, and thoughtful statement.

Euphemism

A mild or less negative usage for a harsh or blunt term; i.e. pass away for die

Hyperbole

Extreme exaggeration.

imagery

A rather vague critical term covering those uses of language in a work that evoke sense impressions by literal or figurative reference to perceptible or "concrete" objects.

irony

A subtly humorous perception of inconsistency.

Verbal

A discrepancy between what is said and what is really meant.

Situational

A discrepancy between what is thought to happen and what actually does.

Dramatic

When the audience knows more about a characters situation that the character does, foreseeing an outcome contrary to a characters expectations.

Logic

An implied comparison resulting when one thing is directly called another. to be logically acceptable, support must be appropriate to the claim, believable and consistent.

Metaphor

A comparison between two unlike things without using the word "like" or "as."

Metonymy

A figure of speech that replaces the name of one thing with the name of something else closely associated with it.

Narrative

The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

Onomatopoeia

The use of words that seem to imitate the sounds they refer to.

Oxymoron

A figure of speech where in the author groups apparently contradictory terms to suggest a paradox -Jumbo shrimp, cruel kindness

Parallelism

The grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs in order to give structural similarity.

Paradox

A seemingly contradictory statement which is actually true. this rhetorical device is often used for emphasis or simply to attract attention.

Parallel Structure

The structure required for expressing two or more grammatical elements of equal rank. Coordinate ideas, compared and contrasted ideas, and correlative constructions call for parallel construction. For example: Colleges favor applicants with good academic records, varied interests, and they should earn a high score on the AP exam. The underlined section of the sentence lacks the same grammatical form as the italicized phrases. To be correct, it should rad high scores.

parody

a work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/ or ridicule.

Pedantic

An adjective that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.

Periodic sentence

A sentence that departs from the usual word order of English sentences by expressing its main thought only at the end. in other words, the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support.

Personification

A figure of speech by which inanimate objects are given human like characteristics.

Point of View

The perspective from which a story is told.

Polysyndeton

A rhetorical device for the repeated use of conjunctions to link a succession of words, clauses, or sentences.

Predicate Adjective

An adjective, group of adjectives, or adjective clause that follows a linking verb.

Predicate Nominative

A noun, Group of nouns, or noun clause that renames the subject.

Pun/Double Entendre

In rhetoric, dealing with one work that suggests two different meaning . Often is used for humor.

Rhetoric

The deliberate exposition of eloquence for the most persuasive effect in public speaking or in writing.

Rhetorical Question

A question asked for the sake of persuasive effect rather than a genuine request for information.

Satire

A mode of writing that exposes the failing of individuals, institutions, or societies to ridicule and scorn.

Simile

A comparison between two unlike things using the words "like" or "as."

Subordinate Clause

This word group contains both a subject and a verb plus accompanying phrases or modifiers.

Subject Complement

The word or clause that follows a linking verb and completes the subject of the sentence by renaming or describing it.

Syllogism

a form of logical argument that derives a conclusion from two propositions, sharing a common term. Usually in this form: all x and y; z is x; therefore z is y.

Symbol

Anything that stands for or represents something else beyond it, usually and idea conventionally associated with it

Natural Symbol

Objects and occurrences from nature to represent ideas commonly associated with them.

Conventional Symbol

Something that has been invested with meaning by a group(religious symbols, such as a cross or a star of David; national symbols, such as flag or eagle).

Synecdoche

a figure of speech in which apart signifies the whole (a fleet of a 100 sails) or the whole signigies the part (days for life, "He lived his days under African skies."). When the name of material stands for the thing itself, as in pigskin for football.

Syntax

the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Theme

The central idea of a work, revealed and developed in the course of a story or explored through argument.

Tone

A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.

Wit

In modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights.

Understatement

The ironic minimizing of fact. The effect can be frequently humorous and emphatic.

Litotes

A figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite, usually with an effect of understatement.

Meiosis

The Greek term for understatement or belittling; a rhetorical figure by which something that is very impressive, is represented with simplicity; i.e. When Mercutio calls his mortal wound a "scratch."

Zeugma

One words, usually a noun or the main verb, which governs two other words not related in meaning - he maintained a business and his innocence.

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