Grammar & Composition

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Noun

A word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

Compound Noun

Made up of two or more words used together as a single noun. like a derivitave. It is two words put together to make one word. E.g. toothpaste, seafood, onlooker.

Common Noun

Names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas; They are not the names of a single person, place or thing. This type of noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. For example: People like; man, girl, boy, Animals like; fish, ant, snake, Places like; school, city, building, or Ideas like; love, hate, pride.

Proper Noun

names a particular person, place, thing, or idea. They are words which name specific people, organisations or places. They always start with a capital letter. E.g. the Civil War, Monday, or Potter.

Concrete Noun

Names of an object that can be perceived by one or more of the senses. names things that we experience through our senses, sight, hearing, smell, touch or taste. Most nouns are are these types of nouns. E.g. Cats, dogs, tables, chairs, buses, and teachers are all concrete nouns. The opposite of this type of noun is an abstract noun.

Abstract Noun

Names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. you cannot sense, it is the name we give to an emotion, ideal or idea. They have no physical existence, you can't see, hear, touch, smell or taste them. The opposite of this type of noun is a concrete noun. E.g. adoration, dexterity, sadness, wit.

Collective Noun

A word that names a group. Is a noun that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things. E.g. Tables, chairs, cupboards etc. are grouped under the collective noun furniture. Could be a Groups of people - army, audience, band, or a Groups of things - bunch, bundle, clump., noun that represents a group of persons animals or things family flock furniture ect, names a group of people, places, or things.

Pronoun

A word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Antecedent

The word that a pronoun stands for.

Personal Pronoun

Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person).

Reflexive Pronoun

Refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition.

Intensive Pronoun

Emphasizes a noun or another pronoun.

Demonstrative Pronoun

Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea (this, that, these, & those).

Relative Pronoun

Introduces a subordinate clause (who, whom, whose, which, & that).

Indefinite Pronoun

Refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.

Interrogative Pronoun

Introduces a question.

Adjective

A word used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Articles

The most frequently used adjectives (a, an, & the).

Demonstrative Adjective

Modifies adjectives (this, that, these, & those).

Proper Adjective

Formed from a proper noun.

Verb

A word expresses action or a state of being.

Helping Verb

Helps the main verb express action or a state of being.

Main Verb

Expresses the action or state of being.

Auxiliary Verb

One helping verb.

Verb Phrase

A main verb and at least one helping verb.

Action Verb

A verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.

Linking Verb

Connects the subject to a word or word group.

Transitive Verb

Expresses action directed toward a person place thing or idea.

Object

Words that receive the action of transitive verbs.

Intransitive Verb

Expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver.

Adverb

A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Preposition

A word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.

Object of the Preposition

The noun or pronoun that completes a prepositional phrase.

Compound Preposition

Preposition that consists of more than one word.

Prepositional Phrase

All together, the proposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object. , preposition + noun or pronoun, A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers. PP-O-M

Conjunction

A word used to join words or groups of words.

Coordinating Conjunction

Joins words or groups of words that are used in the same way.

Correlative Conjunction

pairs of conjunctions that connect words or groups of words.

Interjection

Word used to express emotion.

Subject

The noun, pronoun, or main phrase that precedes/governs the main verb.

Predicate

The verb that expresses the action being performed by the subject; what the noun in the sentence modifies.

Noun

A word that can function as the subject of a sentence. Refers to people, places, things, states, or qualities.

Verb

A word that expresses action, state, or a relation between two things. Function as the main elements of sentences.

Adjective

Modifies a noun; a describing word.

Adverb

Modifies a verb or an adjective.

Pronoun

Replaces a noun or a noun phrase with a very general reference.

Preposition

Links a noun, pronoun, or gerund to other words (direction, time, place, etc.)

Article

A word that is linked to a noun and identifies it as such.

Conjunction

Connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences (FANBOYS).

Appositive

Follows a noun to add more detail.

Restrictive appositive

An appositive that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the meaning.

Nonrestrictive appositive

An appositive that is not essential for the sentence to make sense.

Prepositional phrase

A phrase consisting of a preposition, its object (usually a noun or a pronoun), and any modifiers of the object. All together, the proposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object. , preposition + noun or pronoun, A group of words made up of a preposition, its object, and any of the object's modifiers. PP-O-M

Compound subject

Consists of two or more subjects joined by a conjunction and having the same verb., two or more subjects joined together usually by "and" or "or" that share a common verb, consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a coordinating or correlative conjunction and that have the same predicate/verb

Use of a semicolon

Used to indicate a major division in a sentence where a more distinct separation is felt between clauses or items on a list than is indicated by a comma.

Expletive

A swear word OR a word considered as regularly filling the syntactic position of another., a word or phrase conveying no independent meaning but added to fill out a sentence or metrical line

Infinitive

The most basic form of a verb; does not specify the subject., the uninflected form of the verb, to + verb, a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.

Infinitive phrase

A clause containing an infinitive as its main or only verb form., phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers, consists of an infinitive and its related words, such as modifiers and complements

Participle

An adjective that refers to participation in the action or state of the verb; a verbal form used as an adjective. The past form ends in "-ed" and the present form ends in "-ing.", Verb that can be used as a adjective. Present ends in -ing-----*Past ends in ed.-d,-t,-en,-n (The TERRIFYING movie was rated "R", a verb form that is used with auxiliary verbs to indicate certain tenses, a type of verb that acts as an adjective

Diction

The style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words., the articulation of speech regarded from the point of view of its intelligibility to the audience, clearness of speech

Tone

A particular style or manner, as of writing or speech; mood., the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author, the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people

Intensifier

A word (especially an adverb) that indicates and usually increases the degree of emphasis or force to be given to the element it modifies., a class of words, generally adverbs, used to modify gradable adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or -ed participles, e.g. very, completely, quite.

Parallel structure

Using three or more alike elements, separated with commas, in a sentence., structure in which similar forms of nouns, verbs, phrases, or thoughts. Maintains balance. e.g. "Lilly likes reading, writing, and skiing" instead of "Lilly likes to read, write, and go skiing"

Conjunctive adverb

An adverb that indicates the relationship in meaning between two independent clauses., A type of adverb that creates logical connections between independent clauses which is introduced by a semi colon; and followed by a comma ,. List of them include: Therefore, However, Instead, Rather, Meanwhile, Consequently. Ie... xxxxx; meanwhile, he narrated a film.

Introductory clause

A dependent clause that introduces an independent clause., main clause + subordinating conjunction

Subordination

Words, phrases, or clauses that make one element of a sentence dependent on another., the dependence of one syntactical element on another in a sentence

Compound predicate

Tells two or more things about the same subject without repeating the subject., two or more predicates with the same subject; usually joined by AND or OR; example: We WILL FIND the card catelog or WILL ASK the librarian for help.

Dependent clause

A group of words with a subject and a verb, but one that cannot stand alone as a sentence., a clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb, A fragment

Independent clause

A group of words consisting of a subject and a predicate that can stand alone., has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought

Gerund

The "-ing" form of a verb when functioning as a noun., a form regularly derived from a verb and functioning as a noun

Antecedent

A word, phrase, or clause that is replaced by a pronoun or other substitute later in the same (or a subsequent) sentence., the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers, someone or something that went before; something that provides a model for something that came after it

Nouns and Pronouns

words that name., A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Functions as a subject, direct objects, indirect objects, subject complements, object complements, adjectiveds or an adverbs. Ex: Late last year our NEIGHBORS bought a GOAT. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. Use pronouns like "he", "which", "none", and "you" to make sentneces less cumbersome and less reptitive. Ex: YOU are surely the strangest child I have ever met.

Verbs

words that show an action or state of being.

Prepositions and conjuctions

words that connect.

Adjectives and adverbs

words that describe or modify., Adjectives describe things (nouns and pronouns) and adverbs describe action (verbs).

Interjections

words that show emotion.

Noun

a word which names a person, place, object, idea, or quality., a word that can serve as the subject or object of a verb

Proper Nouns

name particular people, places, objects, or ideas. They ALWAYS begin with a capital letter!!, Has 2 distinctive features; 1) It will name a specific item. 2) It will start with a capitol letter, no matter where it is in the sentence.

Common Nouns

name any person, place, object, or idea., names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas

Concrete Nouns

name a person, place, or object that can be sensed through toughing, smelling, tasting, seeing, or hearing., Words for things which are visible and tangible e.g. 'potato', 'house', 'fox', Cookie, pen, pineapples, eyelashes.

Abstract Nouns

name a quality, a condition, or an idea. refer to intangible, nonphysical entities. They cannot be sensed through hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling, or touching. Represents a feeling and is intangible., Names we have for ideas, emotions, qualities, processes, occasions and times. Invisible and tangible. e.g. 'joy', 'gentleness', 'wedding',

Collective Nouns

(nouns of multitude) name a group of persons, places, or objects gathered together into a unit.

Nouns of Multitude

another name for Collective Nouns

Number of Collective Nouns

singular in the number if the group is considered a single unit.

Compound Nouns

made up of two or more words. Some are written as seperate words, some are hyphenated, and some are written as one word., consists of two or more words used together as a single noun that can be separate words, one word, or a hyphenated word.

Gender of Nouns

masculine, Feminine, Neuter, and Common

Masculine Gender Nouns

denotes nouns of the male sex., All nouns naming individual male persons., Refers to persons or animals that are male. (He, him, his)

Feminine Gender Nouns

denotes nouns of the female sex., includes most words that refer to females. Examples: actress, she, miss

Neuter Gender Nouns

denotes nouns with no sex., refers to things, places, ideas, or qualities that are neither male nor female

Common Gender Nouns

denotes nouns of either maile or female sex.

Noun Number

Singular or Plural

Singular Noun

refers to one person, place, object, or idea., shows ownership by one person or thing

Plural Nouns

refers to more than one person, place, object, or idea.

nominative, objective, and possessive.

3 Types of Cases of the noun

Nominative Case of the Noun

subject, predicate noun, noun of direct address., noun in apposition.

Objective Case of the Noun

direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition.

Nominative or Objective Case of the Noun

noun in apposition.

Possessive Case of the Noun

adjective.

Simple Subjects

tells who or what is doing the verb., The simple subject of a sentence is the noun or pronoun that names the person, place, or thing the sentence is about:
-The small dog with the red collar is mine., tells who or what is doing the verb.

Compund Subjects

consist of two or more words joined by a coordinating conjunction or correlative conjunction., usually plural.
may be singular if referring to one unit
-"Ham and eggs is.."

Understood Subjects

occur in imperative sentences, and (you) is the implied subject.

Predicate Noun

the who or What... follows a linking verb. Identifies or renames the subject. It is in the predicate part of the sentence and completes the meaning of the verb. It renames, or defines, the subject., a noun that follows a linking verb. It defines the subject by telling what it is.

Predicate Nominative

another name for predicate noun.

How do you find the Predicate Noun?

take the subject and the verb and ask who or what. The answer to the who or what is the predicate noun if its verb is a linking verb.

Predicate Adjective

an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject., an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.

Noun of Direct Address

a noun used to speak directly to some person or object. ALWAYS separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas. Often found in imperative sentences where the subject (you) is understood., the name of the person (normally) who is being directly spoken to ex. Mary, do you..., person being spoken to in a sentence
Charlie, don't bite my finger. (Charlie = NDA)

Direct Object

a noun which receives the action of the verb. It must complete the meaning of the verb by receiving the action of the verb or by naming the result of the action. **MUST follow an action verb unless the sentence is inverted., the object that receives the direct action of the verb, a word or group of words that name the receiver of the action. Ex. New Yorkers take the subway. (Subway is the direct object), receives the action of a verb. It answers the question whom? or what? after an action verb

Indirect Object

a noun that tells to whom or for whom or to what or for what an action is done. It receives the direct object. It comes between the verb and the direct object. It receives the DO and can ONLY appear in the combination with a DO., a word or group of words that tell "For whom am I doing this wonderful thing." It is located between the action verb and the direct object. Ex. Harriet gave her mother a bracelet for her birthday. (Mother is the indirect object.), Comes before the direct object. Tells to whom, for whom the action of the verb is done. (Claire threw JOSEPH the ball)

To or For

If the words to or for actually appear before the noun, that noun cannot be an indirect object. In this case the noun is the object of the preposition. "I mailed to you a copy of the letter.", acknowledge, What 2 prepositions (in English) go before the noun in an indirect object?

Object of the Preposition

a noun that relates to another word in the sentence through a preposition., Before setting the table, you should wash your hands. What does the Gerund act as in this sentence

Prepositional Phrase

the preposition, its object, and its modifiers

Adverbial phrase

if the prepositional phrase answers when, where, why, to what extent, or under what conditions., A phrase that functions as an adverb, a linguistic term for a group of two or more words operating adverbially, when viewed in terms of their syntactic function; a phrase that collectively modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, or a prepositional phrase; a group of words that act like an adverb; is a group of words telling us where, when, how or with whom an action is done

Adjective Phrase

if the prepositional phrase answers which one, what kind, or how many, and it modifies a noun or pronoun., a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun (begins with a preposition)

ex. No one in our class has seen the movie yet.
A - in our class

Introductory Prepositional Phrase

ALWAYS modifies the verb!!, Throughout the house, an eerie light shone., one or more prepositional phrases at the beginning of a sentence. *things you can do to a box in terms of location

Steps to find out what the prepositional phrase modifies

1. Locate the preposition 2. Look at the word to the immediate left. 3. What does the prepositional phrase tell about (modify) that word? 4. What question does it answer? ADJ-Noun/ADV-Verb 5. Is it modifying a noun or a verb? 6. If the prepositional phrase does not tell about the word to its left, then look at the verb. **It is always possible to insert the preposition "to" or "for" before the IO without changing the sense of the sentence.

Noun in Apposition

a noun that renames, identifies, or explains the noun it follows. It is set off by commas when it renames a proper noun. Assumes or takes the case of the noun it renames., A noun in apposition is a mini definition - added information in the sentence sometimes set off by commas - 2 kinds of appositions: restricitve (needed; no commas) and nonrestrictive (not really needed; has commas)

Close Apposition

when a noun in apposition is closely related to the word it follows. It is not set off by commas.

Appositive Phrase

a noun in apposition along with its modifiers.

Possesive Case Noun

shows ownership of another noun. MUST have an apostrophe. It is diagramed as an adjective.

Parse

to describe a word by stating its part of speech, form, and syntactical relationship in a sentence. To examine closely or subject to detailed analysis, especially by breaking up into components., analyze syntactically by assigning a constituent structure to (a sentence), to separate (a sentence) into parts and describe the funciton of each

Parsing a Noun

Part of speech,
Kind,
Class,
Number,
Gender,
Use,
Case,

common noun

person, place, thing, feeling, idea

proper noun

specific person, place, thing

pronoun

word that takes the place of a noun

action verb

shows physical or mental action

linking verb

1. shows state-of-being
2. does NOT show action
3. links the subject to a noun or ADJECTIVE

predicate

what the subject is doing; always a verb

subject

who or what is doing the action in a sentence; always a noun

sentence

a group of words that express a complete thought; must have a subject and predicate

compound sentence

a sentence that properly combines two sentences into one

compound predicate

two or more predicates for the subject

compound subject

two or more subjects doing the same predicate

run-on sentence

two sentences improperly combined into one sentence

command

sentence that does not need a subject because the subject is understood to be you - the person being commanded

conjunction

words that connect clauses, phrases, or words (FANBOYS)

adjective

describes nouns

adverb

describes a verb, adjective, or adverb

verb phrase

helping verb + main verb

prepositional phrase

preposition + noun or pronoun

preposition

links a noun or pronoun to the rest of a sentence

object of the preposition

the noun or pronoun at the end of a prepositional phrase

suffix

word part added to the end of a word

prefix

word part added to the beginning of a word

plural

more than one

What does a subject answer and what part of speech can it be?

Who or what? noun, pronoun, proper noun

What question does the predicate answer and what part of speech can it be?

What happened to the subject? verb

What questions do adverbs ask?

How, when, where, to what extent

What questions do adjectives ask?

What kind? Which one? How many?

nouns

Name people, places, things, ideas.