CSU Microbiology 1

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O Polysaccharide

What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) demonstrates antigenic variability, helping the bacteria elude host antibodies?

O Polysaccharide

What is known as the "O" antigen?

O Polysaccharide

What component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria can be used to serotype?

O Polysaccharide

What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is antigenic?

O Polysaccharid

What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extends outward from the cell surface?

Core Polysaccharide

What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides structural support?

Core Polysaccharide

What component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are typically composed of unusual sugars?

Core Polysaccharide

What is attached to lipid A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?

Gram-Negative Bacteria

In what type of cells are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) found?

Gram-Negative Bacteria

In what type of cells is lipid A found?

Endotoxin

When lipid A is released upon lysis of a gram-negative bacterium, what does it act as?

Lipid A

What acts as an endotoxin after it is released during lysis of gram-negative bacteria?

Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Where is lipid A found?

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

What is lipid A a component of?

2 Glucosamine Residues

What is lipid A composed of?

1) Lipid A
2) Core Polysaccharide
3) O Polysaccharide

What are the 3 regions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composed of?

Porins

What forms channels allowing entry of small molecules through the outer and inner membranes of gram-negative bacteria?

1) Peptidoglycan
2) Periplasmic Space
3) Outer Membrane
4) Lipoproteins
5) Porin Proteins

What does the cell wall of a gram-negative bacterium consist of?

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

What does the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium contain that is antigenic?

Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Where is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found?

Phospholipids

What is the inner leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium composed of?

Lipid Bilayer

What type of membrane is the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium?

Gram-Negative Bacterium

What type of bacterium has a periplasmic space?

Gram-Negative Bacteria

In what type of bacteria is a 2nd outer membrane found?

Periplasmic Space

The space between the peptidoglycan layer and the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium

Thin

Gram-negative bacteria have a ___ layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

Gram-Negative Bacteria

What type of bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?

Gram-Positive Bacteria

What type of bacteria have peptide cross-bridges (interbridges) connecting the tetrapeptide chains of peptidoglycan?

Peptide Cross-Bridges (Interbridges)

What connects tetrapeptide chains in gram-positive bacteria?

Lipoteichoic Acids

What is bound to the plasma membrane of gram-positive bacteria, spans the peptidoglycan layer and extends from the surface of the cell wall?

Teichoic Acids

What component of the cell wall in gram-positive bacteria is antigenic?

Teichoic Acids

What may be used for serotyping in gram-positive bacteria?

Teichoic Acids

What extends from the surface of the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria?

Gram-Positive Bacteria

What type of bacteria have teichoic acids linked to the peptidoglycan of their cell walls?

Thick

Gram-positive bacteria have a ___ cell wall.

Gram-Positive Bacteria

What type of bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?

Gram-Negative Bacteria

What type of bacteria stains pink in a gram-stain?

Gram-Positive Bacteria

What type of bacteria stains purple in a gram-stain?

Pink

What color do gram-negative bacteria stain in a gram stain?

Purple

What color do gram-positive bacteria stain in a gram-stain?

4th

The 3rd position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?

3rd

The 4th position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?

Carboxyl Group

What part of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) unit in peptidoglycan is the tetrapeptide chain attached to?

Carboxyl Group of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) Units

What do the tetrapeptide chains attach to in the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?

Tetrapeptide Chains

What is attached to the carboxyl groups of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) units in peptidoglycan?

1) N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM)
2) N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)

What are the 2 alternating carbohydrates in the backbone of peptidoglycan?

1) Animals
2) Plants
3) Fungi
4) Protisits

What are the 4 types of eukaryotes?

1) Bacteria
2) Archaea

What are the 2 types of prokaryotes?

1) Prokaryote
2) Eukaryote

What are the 2 cell types?

Cells

All organisms possess one or more what?

1) Enzymes
2) Antibiotics
3) Toxins

What are 3 things plasmids may encode for?

Survival

Plasmids are not required for what in prokaryotes?

1) Small
2) Double Stranded DNA
3) Circular

Describe the characteristics of a plasmid.

1) Single
2) Circular
3) Double Stranded DNA

Describe the characteristics of the bacterial chromosome.

Nucleoid

The region in a bacterial cell containing the bacterial chromosome

Plasma Membrane

What is the chromosome attached to in prokaryotes?

1) 60 S
2) 40 S

What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for eukaryotes?

80 S

What is the sedementation coefficient of eukaryotic ribosomes?

1) Bacterial Chromosome
2) Plasmids

What are the 2 components of the prokaryotic genome?

1) 50 S
2) 30 S

What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for prokaryotes?

70 S

What is the sedementation coefficient of prokaryotic ribosomes?

1) rRNA
2) Proteins

What are the 2 major components of ribosomes?

Archaea

What type of cells often have plasma membranes composed of a lipid monolayer?

1) Respiration
2) Photosynthesis
3) Synthesis of Lipids
4) Synthesis of Cell Wall Components

What cellular processes can take place in prokaryotic plasma membranes?

Prokaryotes

What type of cells have no sterols in their plasma membranes?

Organelle

A membrane surrounded structure within a cell with specific shape and function

Prokaryotes

What types of cells have no cytoskeleton or organelles?

1) Cytoplasm
2) Plasma Membrane
3) Ribosomes
4) Nuclear Genome of DNA

What are the 4 characteristics common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

1) Viruses
2) Viroids
3) Prions

What are the 3 types of acellular infectious agents?

Prions

What infectious particles are composed only of protein?

Crops

What do viroids most commonly infect?

Viroids

What are composed of only naked RNA

Viruses

What are composed of only nucleic acid in a protein coat with or without a lipid envelope?

Organism

An individual composed of one or more cells

Nanometers (nm)

Viruses are measured in what?

Micrometers (mum) or Microns (mu)

Bacteria are measured in what?

Microorganism

An organism too small to be seen with the unaided eye

D-Alanine

What is always the 4th amino acid in a tetrapeptide chain attached to the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?

Flagellin

Prokaryotic flagella are composed of repeating units of what protein?

1) Flagella
2) Axial Fillaments

In prokaryotes, the protein flagellin assembles as repeating units to form what structures?

Rotating Motion

What motion do prokaryotic flagella have?

Spirochetes

In what type of prokaryotes are axial fillaments found?

Axial Fillament

A flagella wrapped around a bacterial cell between the cell wall and outer sheath

Axial Fillaments

What is responsible for the shape of spirochetes?

Flagellin

What protein are axial fillaments composed of?

Between the Cell Wall and the Outer Sheath

Where are axial fillaments located in bacteria?

Sugars

What are bacterial glycocalyces usually composed of?

Capsule

A glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the bacterial cell wall

Slime Layer

A glycocalyx that is loosely attached to the bacterial cell wall

Glycocalyces

What are capsules and slime layers in bacteria?

Desiccation

Drying-out

1) Resists phagocytosis by host cells
2) Aids in attachment to surfaces
2) Protects against desiccation

What are 3 functions of glycocalyces in bacteria?

Encapsulated

What type of bacteria form smooth colonies on agar plates?

Unencapsulated

What type of bacteria form rough colonies on agar plates?

Streptococcus mutans

What encapsulated bacteria forms a biofilm on teeth resulting in dental plaque?

Dental Plaque

What does Streptococcus mutans cause?

Biofilm

What does Streptococcus mutans form on teeth?

1) Microfilaments (MFs)
2) Intermediate Filaments (IFs)
3) Microtubules (MTs)

What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotes?

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