What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) demonstrates antigenic variability, helping the bacteria elude host antibodies?
What is known as the "O" antigen?
What component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria can be used to serotype?
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is antigenic?
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extends outward from the cell surface?
What component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides structural support?
What component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are typically composed of unusual sugars?
What is attached to lipid A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?
In what type of cells are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) found?
In what type of cells is lipid A found?
When lipid A is released upon lysis of a gram-negative bacterium, what does it act as?
What acts as an endotoxin after it is released during lysis of gram-negative bacteria?
Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Where is lipid A found?
What is lipid A a component of?
2 Glucosamine Residues
What is lipid A composed of?
1) Lipid A
2) Core Polysaccharide
3) O Polysaccharide
What are the 3 regions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composed of?
What forms channels allowing entry of small molecules through the outer and inner membranes of gram-negative bacteria?
2) Periplasmic Space
3) Outer Membrane
5) Porin Proteins
What does the cell wall of a gram-negative bacterium consist of?
What does the outer leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium contain that is antigenic?
Outer Leaflet of the Outer Membrane of Gram-Negative Bacteria
Where is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found?
What is the inner leaflet of the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium composed of?
What type of membrane is the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium?
What type of bacterium has a periplasmic space?
In what type of bacteria is a 2nd outer membrane found?
The space between the peptidoglycan layer and the outer membrane of a gram-negative bacterium
Gram-negative bacteria have a ___ layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
What type of bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
What type of bacteria have peptide cross-bridges (interbridges) connecting the tetrapeptide chains of peptidoglycan?
Peptide Cross-Bridges (Interbridges)
What connects tetrapeptide chains in gram-positive bacteria?
What is bound to the plasma membrane of gram-positive bacteria, spans the peptidoglycan layer and extends from the surface of the cell wall?
What component of the cell wall in gram-positive bacteria is antigenic?
What may be used for serotyping in gram-positive bacteria?
What extends from the surface of the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria?
What type of bacteria have teichoic acids linked to the peptidoglycan of their cell walls?
Gram-positive bacteria have a ___ cell wall.
What type of bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls?
What type of bacteria stains pink in a gram-stain?
What type of bacteria stains purple in a gram-stain?
What color do gram-negative bacteria stain in a gram stain?
What color do gram-positive bacteria stain in a gram-stain?
The 3rd position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
The 4th position amino acid of one tetrapeptide chain in peptidoglycan is linked to the what position amino acid in the adjacent chain?
What part of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) unit in peptidoglycan is the tetrapeptide chain attached to?
Carboxyl Group of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) Units
What do the tetrapeptide chains attach to in the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
What is attached to the carboxyl groups of the N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM) units in peptidoglycan?
1) N-Acetylmuramic Acid (NAM)
2) N-Acetylglucosamine (NAG)
What are the 2 alternating carbohydrates in the backbone of peptidoglycan?
What are the 4 types of eukaryotes?
What are the 2 types of prokaryotes?
What are the 2 cell types?
All organisms possess one or more what?
What are 3 things plasmids may encode for?
Plasmids are not required for what in prokaryotes?
2) Double Stranded DNA
Describe the characteristics of a plasmid.
3) Double Stranded DNA
Describe the characteristics of the bacterial chromosome.
The region in a bacterial cell containing the bacterial chromosome
What is the chromosome attached to in prokaryotes?
1) 60 S
2) 40 S
What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for eukaryotes?
What is the sedementation coefficient of eukaryotic ribosomes?
1) Bacterial Chromosome
What are the 2 components of the prokaryotic genome?
1) 50 S
2) 30 S
What are the sedementation coefficients of the ribosomal subunits for prokaryotes?
What is the sedementation coefficient of prokaryotic ribosomes?
What are the 2 major components of ribosomes?
What type of cells often have plasma membranes composed of a lipid monolayer?
3) Synthesis of Lipids
4) Synthesis of Cell Wall Components
What cellular processes can take place in prokaryotic plasma membranes?
What type of cells have no sterols in their plasma membranes?
A membrane surrounded structure within a cell with specific shape and function
What types of cells have no cytoskeleton or organelles?
2) Plasma Membrane
4) Nuclear Genome of DNA
What are the 4 characteristics common to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
What are the 3 types of acellular infectious agents?
What infectious particles are composed only of protein?
What do viroids most commonly infect?
What are composed of only naked RNA
What are composed of only nucleic acid in a protein coat with or without a lipid envelope?
An individual composed of one or more cells
Viruses are measured in what?
Micrometers (mum) or Microns (mu)
Bacteria are measured in what?
An organism too small to be seen with the unaided eye
What is always the 4th amino acid in a tetrapeptide chain attached to the carbohydrate backbone of peptidoglycan?
Prokaryotic flagella are composed of repeating units of what protein?
2) Axial Fillaments
In prokaryotes, the protein flagellin assembles as repeating units to form what structures?
What motion do prokaryotic flagella have?
In what type of prokaryotes are axial fillaments found?
A flagella wrapped around a bacterial cell between the cell wall and outer sheath
What is responsible for the shape of spirochetes?
What protein are axial fillaments composed of?
Between the Cell Wall and the Outer Sheath
Where are axial fillaments located in bacteria?
What are bacterial glycocalyces usually composed of?
A glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the bacterial cell wall
A glycocalyx that is loosely attached to the bacterial cell wall
What are capsules and slime layers in bacteria?
1) Resists phagocytosis by host cells
2) Aids in attachment to surfaces
2) Protects against desiccation
What are 3 functions of glycocalyces in bacteria?
What type of bacteria form smooth colonies on agar plates?
What type of bacteria form rough colonies on agar plates?
What encapsulated bacteria forms a biofilm on teeth resulting in dental plaque?
What does Streptococcus mutans cause?
What does Streptococcus mutans form on teeth?
1) Microfilaments (MFs)
2) Intermediate Filaments (IFs)
3) Microtubules (MTs)
What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotes?
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