advanced pharmacology

41 terms by genamorvant 

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pharmacology

the study of chemicals (drugs) on living tissues and how those chemicals help diagnose, treat, cure, and prevent disease or correct the pathophysiology of living tissues. the study of drugs and their action in the body

pharmacy

the art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs for medicinal use

pharmacotherapeutics

the study of how drugs are used in the treatment of illness, which drug to use for a specific disorder, and the appropriate dose, form, route, and frequency to use

pharmacodynamics

the study of drug's effect on cellular physiology and biochemistry and the mechanism of action

pharmacognosy

study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources

biotechnology

the fiedl of pharmacology that involves using living cells, usually altered cultures of Escherichia coli, to manufacture drugs

toxicology

the science that deals with poisons, their detection, and the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions caused by them

additive effect

the combined effect of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone

adverse or untoward effect

an action, usually negative, that is different from the planned effect

adjunct

an additional drug or chemical substance used to increase the efficacy or safety of a primary drug or to facilitate its action

agonists

drugs capable of combining with receptors to produce a response

agranulocytosis

a toxic condition often caused by reactions to drug therapy in which a certain type of white blood cells-- those with very small grandules in the cell body-- is deficient or absent

analog

a substance structurally or chemically similar to another related drug or chemical but that has different effects

anaphylaxis

a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction accompanied by vasodilation, lowered blood pressure, and shock

antagonist

an agent that resists or opposes the action of another agent

aplastic anemia

dysfunction of the bone marrow, often occuring as a reaction to drug therapy, in which there is a severe decrease in the production of erythrocytes and white blood cells

ataxia

muscular incoordination, with staggering gait

athetosis

recurrent, slow, and continual body movements, usually the result of a brain lesion

biosynthesis

formation of a chemical compound by enzymes either within an organism (in vivo) or in vitro by fragments of cells

blood dyscrasia

a pathologic condition in which any of the constiuents of the blood are abnormal in structure, function, or quality, as in leukemia or hemophilia

DEA

under department of justice; organized to enfore the conrolled substances act. Every manufacturer, physician nurse practitioner, physician assistant, dentist, pharmacy, and hospital that manufactures, prescribes, or dispenses any of the drugs listed in the five schedules must register

depression

a decrease in activity of cells caused by the action of a drug

gynecomastia

an abnormal enlargement of one or both breasts in men; sometimes accompanied by milk production. may be related to hormonal imbalance, adrenal or pituitary tumor, medication containing estrogens or steroidal compounds, or liver disorders

half-life

the time interval required for elimination processes to reduce the concentration of a drug in the body by one-half

hirsutism

excessive body hair as a result of hereditary, hormonal dysfunction, porphyria, or medication

hypersensitivity

sensitive to the effects of the drug, has adverse symptoms, but doesn't have a full allergic reaction

idiosyncrasy

abnormal sensitivity to a drug, or a reaction not intended

inotropic drug

an agent that increases myocardial contractility

palliative

relieving symptoms when a disease can't be cured

parethesia

a sensation of numbness, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling. may be related to posture, activity, rest, edema, congestion, medication, or underlying disease

physical dependence

physical need for the substance on which one is dependent in order to avoid unpleasant physical withdrawal symptoms

potentiation

combined action of drugs is greater than the effects of each used alone

prophylactic

an agent or measure used to prevent disease

psychoactive drug

a drug that affects such normal mental functioning as mood, behavior, or thinking processes

stevens-johnson syndrom

a serious, sometimes fatal, inflammatory disease affecting children and young adults. it is characterized by the acute onset of fever, skin rash, and ulcers on the mucous membranes of the lips, eyes, mouth, nasal passage, and genitalia. it may be an allergic reaction to certain drugs, or it may follow pregnancy, herpes virus I, or other infection

stimulation

an increase in the activity of cells which is produced by drugs

synergistic effect

where the action of two drugs combined is increased or greater than the effect of the drugs given separately

teratogen

any substance, agent, or process that interferes with normal prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus. may be related to chemical agents such as drugs, cleansers, alcohol, or may be related to radiation, infectious agents, age or health of mother or intrauterine trauma

therapeutic range

range of level of a drug in the blood that will produce a desired effect without causing toxic effects

tolerance

increasing resistance to the usual effects of an established dosage of a drug as a result of continued use

withdrawal syndrome

a physical and mental response after cessation or severe reduction in the intake of a substance such as alcohol or opiates that has been used regularly to induce euphoria, intoxication, or relief from pain or distress. characterized by anxiery, restlessness, insomnia, irritability, impaired attention, and often physical illness

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