Nutrition - Final

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Nutrition Bio 280 Dr. Fitzgerald Scc

Which of the following is a feature of vitamins

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

Which of the following is NOT a water soluble vitamin

Vitamin D

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins

Kidney

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

thiamin

All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition except

recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents.

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size

Ham

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when the diet is low in

dairy foods

Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions

Riboflavin

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin

Riboflavin

The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

rough skin

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria

Biotin

What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin

30 µg (micrograms)

What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A

Pantothenic acid

What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults

5 mg

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food

Pantothenic acid

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue

Vitamin B6

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism

Vitamin B6

What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6

1.3 mg

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of ___________ during pregnancy

folate.

y law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice

140

hat vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells

Folate

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12

Intrinsic factor

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin B12

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency

Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C

Antioxidant agent

In what capacity does vitamin C function

Cofactor in collagen formation

Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency

Bleeding gums

Which of the following food groups is a rich source of vitamin C

fruit

In the United States, what is the adult RDA for vitamin C

75-90 mg

What is the major carrier of the fat-soluble vitamins from the intestinal epithelial cell to the circulation

Chylomicrons

Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body

Beta-carotene

Which of the following is the name of the vitamin A compound that is active in the visual response

Retinal

What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A

Liver

How many micrograms of dietary beta-carotene are equivalent to 1 retinol activity equivalent (RAE)

12

On average, one retinol activity equivalent (RAE) is equal to about how many international units (IU)

3

Which of the following foods is a very good source of vitamin A

Pumpkin pie

Vitamin A does not play an important role in which of the following processes

Blood clotting

An example of a symptom of Vitamin A deficiency is

night- blindness

Which of the following is the most likely side effect for a person who regularly consumes large quantities of carrots or carrot juice

Skin yellowing

n which of the following individuals would vitamin A toxicity be most likely to occur

Those taking vitamin A supplements

The adult RDA for vitamin A is approximately

800 retinol activity equivalents (RAE)

Your sister Ellen has just joined the Peace Corps and will be working on ways to improve the nutritional status of children in Indonesia. .......

Sweet potato

All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except the

intestines

Which of the following compounds serves as the major precursor for the body's synthesis of vitamin D

Cholesterol

What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D

Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition except

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency

Bowed legs

Which of the following is not known to promote vitamin D deficiency in the elderly

Excessive use of hypertension medications

Which of the following may result from excessive intakes of vitamin D by adults

Mineral deposits in soft tissues such as the kidney

hich of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status

Outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight

Which of the following is a naturally occurring food source of vitamin D

Egg yolks

Which of the following is not a feature of vitamin D nutrition

Excessive exposure to the sun increases risk for vitamin D toxicity

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)

antioxidant

How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease

It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins

Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people

Erythrocyte hemolysis

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet

Vegetable oils

In what chief capacity does vitamin K function

Blood clotting

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin K

Bacteria in the intestines synthesize bioavailable vitamin K

What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines

Green leafy vegetables

Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis

50

Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person? Hint:

80

Which of the following is not a function of water in the body

Source of energy

In the body, water that resides between cells is known as

interstitial fluid

All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except

spastic muscles

Which of the following body structures helps to regulate thirst

Hypothalamus

Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition

Water intoxication is rare but can result in death

The average daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is approximately

1.5 to 2.5 liters

Approximately how many mL of water/day are produced by metabolism

250

Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals

Distilled water

What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids

Kidneys

How does antidiuretic hormone function

It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys

Which of the following describes a way to make an electrolyte solution

Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water

What is the major extracellular cation

Na+

What is the major intracellular cation

K+

What is the term for the pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations of solutes are separated by a semi- permeable membrane

Osmotic pressure

The normal blood pH range is approximately

7.35-7.45

All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except

the gall bladder

What cardiovascular condition occurs most often in persons who consume too much sodium

hypertension

Which of the following does not have sodium

high fructose corn syrup

How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g? Hint:

1,000 mg

Which of the following is a major function of chloride

Helps maintain gastric acidity

All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except

the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight

Which of the following is the primary function of potassium

Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte

Which of the following is not a feature of potassium deficiency

It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources

Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency

Muscle weakness

Which of the following is a poor source of potassium? Hint

white rice

All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except

processed foods are a major source

As far as is known, which of the following is not a process that directly involves calcium

pH regulation

Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood

Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin hormone

Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium

Certain green vegetables

Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium

Broccoli

A measure of the amount at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed

bioavailability

Which of the following is not a trace element

calcium

Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues

Transferrin

Which of the following is a characteristic of iron absorption

Absorption of heme iron is about 50% higher than nonheme iron

How does vitamin C enhance iron absorption when consumed in the same meal

It keeps iron in the reduced ferrous form

Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form

Chicken

Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract

Vitamin C

Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia

Men 20-45 years of age

The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except

DNA content of red blood cells

In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods

Breads and cereals

All of the following are considered heavy metals except

iron

Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine

1/2 teaspoon

Which of the following foods has the riches source of iodine

salmon

The RDA for iodine is

150 micrograms

In the United States what is added to salt

iodine

Simple goiter is caused by a dietary deficiency of

iodine

Cretinism is caused by a deficiency of

iodine

A classical sign of zinc deficiency is

growth retardation

The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of

copper

Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition

It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing

Which of the following meats would be the best source of coppe

Shellfish

Fluoride deficiency is best known to lead to

dental decay

Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except

milk

Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth

Excessive fluoride in the water

What trace mineral enhances insulin activity

chromium

One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of

carbohydrates

Chromium deficiency is characterized by

hyperglycemia

Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition

Whole grains represent an excellent source

What trace mineral is part of vitamin B12

Cobalt

Which of the following trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development

Silicon

The components of fitness include all of the following except

bone fragility

Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least

2.5 hours/week

Which of the following is not
derived directly from cardiorespiratory conditioning

Increased flexibility

For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least

20 minutes

In weight training, muscle endurance can best be emphasized by combining a

high number of repetitions with lighter weight

What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP

Creatine phosphate

What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction

ATP

What is the usual fate of muscle glycogen during exercise

Utilized as a fuel within the muscle cells only

What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentration

Carbohydrates

A tissue deprived of an oxygen supply (anaerobic) during exercise would develop an accumulation of

lactate (lactic acid)

What is the name of the biochemical pathway describing the conversion of lactate to glucose

Cori cycle

When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted

Glucose

What type of meal and time of its ingestion promotes the most rapid restoration of glycogen stores after physical activity

High-carbohydrate meal taken within 15 minutes

What cellular organelles are responsible for producing ATP aerobically

Mitochondria

Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity

Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity

Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in athletes

Iron losses occur from accelerated destruction of fragile, older blood cells

Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches

2%

All of the following are characteristics of heat stroke except

it is rarely fatal.

Hyponatremia refers to low blood levels o

sodium

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes

Nutrient-dense foods

All of the following are characteristics of nutrition and pregnancy except

underweight has little, if any, effect on fertility

Which of the following describes the capacity of a man to produce sperm and a woman to periodically produce a normal egg

Fertility

What is the placenta

An organ from which the infant receives nourishment from the mother

A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)

zygote

What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth

Fetus

Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

3 months, called trimesters

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