test 4

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allegro

a fast tempo in music

andante

a moderate tempo in music

brass

a family of wind instruments that usually includes the French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba

cantata

a multi-movement composition for voices and instrumental accompaniment; smaller in scale than the oratorio

caricature

exaggeration of peculiarities or defects to produce comic or burlesque effects

coda

passage added to the closing section of a movement or musical composition in order to create the sense of a definite ending

concerto

an instrumental composition consisting of one or more solo instruments and a larger group of instruments playing in "dialogue"

deductive reasoning

a method of inquiry that begins with clearly established general premises and moves toward the establishment of particular truths

deism

a movement or system of thought advocating natural religion based on human reason rather than revelation; deists describe God as Creator, but deny that God interferes with the laws of the universe

equal temperament

a system of tuning that originated in the seventeenth century, whereby the octave is divided into twelve half-steps of equal size; since intervals have the same value in all keys, music may be played in any key, and a musician may change from one key to another with complete freedom.

etching

a kind of engraving in which a metal plate is covered with resin, then incised with a burin; acid is applied to "eat" away the exposed lines, which are inked before the plate is wiped clean and printed

fête galante

a festive diversion enjoyed by aristocrats, a favored subject in rococo art

figured bass

in baroque music, the line of music with numbers written below (or above) it to indicate the required harmonies, usually improvised in the form of keyboard chords accompanying the melody

fortissimo

a directive indicating that the music should be played very loud; its opposite is pianissimo ("very soft")

fugue

a polyphonic composition in which a theme (or subject) is imitated, restated, and developed by successively entering voice parts

geocentric

earth-centered

heliocentric

sun-centered

heroic couplet

a pair of rhymed iambic pentameter lines that reach completion in structure and in sense at the end of the second line

homophony

a musical texture consisting of a dominant melody supported by chordal accompaniment that is far less important than the melody

idealism

in philosophy, the theory that holds that reality consists of the mind and its ideas; transcendental (or critical) idealism is Kant's name for the doctrine that knowledge is a synthetic product of the logical self

impasto

a style in painting in which the paint is applied thickly or heavily

inductive reasoning

a method of inquiry that begins with direct observation and experimentation and moves toward the establishment of general conclusions or axioms

laissez-faire

a general policy of non-interference in the economy, defended by such classical economists as Adam Smith

largo

a very slow tempo; the slowest of the conventional tempos in music

movement

a major section in a long instrumental composition

opera buffa

a type of comic opera usually featuring stock characters

oratorio

a musical setting of a long text, either religious or secular, for soloists, chorus, narrator, and orchestra; usually performed without scenery, costumes, or dramatic action

percussion

instruments that are sounded by being struck or shaken, used especially for rhythm

philosophes

the intellectuals of the European Enlightenment

prelude

a piece of instrumental music that introduces a church service or another piece of music

ritornello

in baroque music, an instrumental section that recurs throughout the movement

score

the musical notation for all of the instruments or voices in a particular composition; a composite from which the whole piece may be conducted or studied

sonata

an instrumental composition consisting of three movements of contrasting tempo, usually fast/slow/fast

strings

instruments that usually includes the violin, viola, cello, and double bass (which are normally bowed); the harp, guitar, lute, and zither (which are normally plucked) can also be included, as can the viol, a bowed instrument common in the 16th and 17th centuries and a forerunner of the violin family

suite

instrumental composition consisting of a sequence or series of movements derived from court or folk dances

symphony

an independent instrumental composition for orchestra

vanitas

a type of still life consisting of objects that symbolize the brevity of life and the transience of earthly pleasures and achievements

woodwinds

a family of wind instruments, usually consisting of the flute, oboe, clarinet, and bassoon

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