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urinary tract

The urinary tract is composed of the Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra

The primary function of the Urinary tract is the filtration of blood in the kidneys and the excretion of Urine

The Kidneys filter the blood

The Kidneys regulate mineral and water balance in the body

The Kidneys produce Erythropoietin and Renin

Urine flows from the kidneys into the Ureters and is stored in the Bladder until it is discharged through the Urethra

In the kidneys Urine is formed in the Nephron.

The basic functional unit of the kidney is the Nephron

The Nephron is composed of a Glomerulus, Tubule, and collecting ducts

The glomerulus consist of specialized capillaries that allow selective passage of fluids and solutes form the blood into the lumen of the Nephron.

Most of the fluid that passes through the kidneys is reabsorbed by the body as the urine passes through the collecting ducts

Kidneys secrete Erythropoietin to regulate the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow and Renin to regulate blood pressure.

Renin is released by the kidney in response to reduced blood volume, low blood pressure, or low sodium concentrations in the blood

The urinary tract is extremely sensitive to bacterial infections.

The capillaries in the Glomeruli are VERY sensitive to blood-borne antibodies and are easily damaged in many systemic autoimmune diseases

Renal tubules are very sensitive to hypoxia as well as toxins and are easily damaged

Proteinuria is an increased excretion of protein in the urine

Glucosuria is an increased excretion of glucose in the urine.

Hematuria is excretion of blood in the urine

Inflammatory responses evoked by Type II or Type III hypersensitivity reactions

Diabetes complications associated with thickening basement membranes

Ischemia induced by atherosclerosis of the renal arteries

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) induced by Shock

The Nephritic syndrome is associated with a generalized edema, hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, and hypoalbuminemia.

The Neprhotic syndrome is associated with a generalized edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and lipiduria.

Acute Renal Failure has a sudden onset

Acute Renal Failure can be caused by circulatory shock

Acute Renal Failure can be caused by glomerulonephritis or tubular necrosis in the kidneys

Acute Renal Failure can be caused by obstruction of urine flow

Acute Glomerulonephritis occurs when antibodies produced in response to an infection are trapped in the glomerular basement membranes and cause a damaging inflammatory response.

Goodpasture's syndrome is a disease characterized by the formation of antibodies to a component of the body's own glomeruli basement membranes

Bacterial infections are the most common type of Urinary Tract infections.

Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidneys

Cystitis is an infection of the urinary bladder.

Bacteria can reach the urinary tract through the blood or through the urethra

Urinary tract infections are more common in men because of their shorter urethra.

Acute tubular necrosis can occur following myocardial infarctions, hypotensive shock, or following exposure to toxins such as antibiotics or radiographic contrast agents

Hypertension can damage renal arteries and arterioles and lead to renal ischemia causing reduced renal function.

Hypertension can damage renal arteries and arterioles and lead to renal ischemia which will further cause increases in blood pressures through increased Renin secretion.

Bladder cancer tends to undergo growth into the lumen of the bladder and tends to be less invasive and less prone to metastasize

Bladder cancer tends to present clinical symptoms early in its development and can be treated early

Bladder tumors tend to respond VERY well to combined surgical, chemotherapeutic, and immunotherapeutic treatments.

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