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Endocrine System

glands that produce hormones that regulate the bodys growth, metabolism and sexual developement and function

Endocrine Glands are usually called

glands of internal secretion because they exude chemical products directly into the bloodstream

The endocrines chemical messengers are called

hormones

Endocrine glands found in the head

(3) Hypothalmus, Pituitary, Pineal

Endocrine glands in the neck and trunk area

(8) Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenals, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, Placenta

controls and is controlled by hormones

the hypothalmus

the hypothalmus contains

millions of nerve cells

the hypothalmus stimulates

pituitary gland

The hypothalmus links the endocrine system with

the nervous system

Pineal gland controls

body rhythms such as sleeping and waking

how is the pineal gland connected to the nerves

from the eyes

The pituitary gland is also called

The Master Gland, because it controls many other endocrine glands

The pituitary gland is

directly linked to the hypothalmus and acts as the systems overall coordinator

homeostasis

constant internal conditions, stability

The hypothalmus maintains

homeostasis by regulating internal environment

examples of the internal environment

heartbeat, body temperature, water balance and secretions of the pituitary gland

pineal gland location

center of the brain

hormone secreted by pineal gland

melatonin

sunlight is needed

for the pineal gland to function

pineal gland UNDER secretion

causes SAD (Seasonal adjustment Disorder)

pineal gland OVER secretion

causes chloasma or melasma

chloasma is

brownish patches on the skin

melasma is

the mask of pregnancy

the pineal gland affects

female reproductive cycles, aging and helps us sleep

The Master Gland / Hypophysis

AKA the Pituitary Gland

pituitary gland location

sella turcica (bone cavity below the brain)

pituitary glands lobes

(3) Anterior, Intermediate, Posterior

What does the pituitary gland look like

cherry shaped and pea sized

hormones secreted by the Anterior Lobe

(6) ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, GH and Prolactin

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

LH

Lutenizing Hormone

TSH

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

GH

Growth Hormone

Action of ACTH

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete its hormone

UNDER secretion of ACTH

could result in atrophy of the adrenal cortex

OVER secretion of ACTH

could result in hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex

Gonadotropins

FSH and LH produced by the anterior pituitary gland

Action of FSH and LH

responsible for sexual development and production of sex hormones

FSH in Males

stimulates sperm production

FSH in Females

stimulates follicles to develop and also egg and estrogen production

UNDER secretion of FSH and LH

could cause infertility or sterility

LH in Males

stimulates androgen production

LH in Females

furthers development of egg and stimulates ovulation and secretion of progesterone

TSH is also called

Thyrotropin

Action of TSH

regulates and stimulates the thyroid gland

UNDER secretion of TSH in Adults

Hypothyroidism, Myxedema

UNDER secretion of TSH in infants

Hypothyroidism, Cretinism

OVER secretion of TSH

Hyperthyroidism, causes Grave's Disease

GH is also called

Somatotropin

Action of GH

regulates growth of body cells and bones

UNDER secretion of GH

could result in dwarfism in childhood

OVER secretion of GH

could result in giantism in childhood
or Acromegaly in adults

Acromegaly

excessively large body portions such as hands, feet and facial features

Prolactin

Milk Synthesis

Prolactin in Males

Amplifies production of LH

Prolactin in Females

responsible for development of mammary glands for production of milk

The intermediate lobe secretes 1 hormone

MSH (Melanin Stimulating Hormone)

MSH

Melanin Stimulating Hormone

MSH Affects

skin coloring, production of melanin (pigment)

UNDER secretion of MSH

can cause 2 types of Leukoderma (Albinism and Vitiligo)

Albinism

total lack of pigment

Vitiligo

White patches or lack of pigment in patches

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone

ADH is also called

Vasopressin

ADH affects

water balance and blood pressure

UNDER secretion of ADH

Diabetes Insipidus (Water Diabetes)

Diabetes Insipidus symptoms

great thirst and lack of ability to retain fluid

OVER secretion of ADH

High Blood Pressure

Diabetes Mellitus

sugar diabetes, not enough insulin produces hyperglycemia (too much sugar) too much insulin produces hypoglycemia (too little sugar)

Hormones secreted in the posterior lobe

ADH and Oxytocin

Oxytocin in Males

aids in ejaculation

Oxytocin in Females

Stimulates uterine contractions and ejection of breast milk

thyroid gland looks like

butterfly shaped with two lobes joined in the middle by an isthmus

thyroid gland location

below the larynx or voicebox, on both sides of the windpipe

hormone secreted by the thyroid

thyroxin

action of thyroxin

regulates metabolism and increases oxygen

cretinism

hypothyroidism in infants

myxedema

hypothyroidism in adults

graves disease

hyperthyroidism

parathyroid location

in the four corners of the thyroid gland and in the thyroid tissue

hormone secreted by the parathyroid

parathormone

action of parathormone

controls calcium and phosphate levels in the blood

OVER secretion of parathormone

potential kidney stones (too much calcium)

UNDER secretion of parathormone

Tetany (too little calcium)

tetany

low blood calcium levels that can trigger nerve impulses and increased nerve excitability causing painful spasms of hands and feet

thymus gland

large at birth, shrinking to the size of a chestnut by puberty. by adulthood its atrophied and only weighs about 10g

thymus gland location

chest cavity, behind the breatbone and in front of the heart

hormone secreted by the thymus

thymic or thymosin

action of thymic/thymosin

thought to be linked with the immune system, possibly develops growth of lymphatic tissue

if removed at an early age, or if underdeveloped, may be lacking in immune/lymphatic tissue

thymus gland

adrenal glands

two small crescant shaped glands, one located above each kidney

regions of the adrenal glands

(2) cortex and medulla

cortex

outer portion of the adrenal glands, responsible for excessive hair growth

medulla

inner portion of the adrenal glands

adrenal cortex's groupings of hormones

corticosteroid hormones, mineral corticoids and sex steroids

corticosteroid hormones

(3) cortisol, cortisone and hydrocortisone

action of corticosteroid hormones

regulates carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, aids in prevention of inflammation of joints and muscles, aids in resistance to stress, helps prevent severe allergic reaction and plays a part in increasing blood sugar levels

mineral corticoids

(2) aldosterone and spironolactone

spironolactone

hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. androgen blocker, common drug for men becoming women

action of mineral corticoids

regulate blood pressure, also regulates the concentration of sodium and potassium in body fluids (the balance of electrolytes in body fluids)

action of sex steroids

responsible for sexual development

sex steroids

estrogen, progesterone and androgens (male hormones such as testosterone)

sex steroid conditions

addisons disease, cushings syndrome, adrenal hyperplasia, adrenogenital syndrome and archard thiers

addisons disease

hypoadrenalism-under activity of the adrenal glands resulting in decreased mental activity, vitiligo, vomitting, nausea and weight loss

UNDER secretion in the sex steroids

hypoadrenalism (AKA addisons disease)

cushings syndrome

condition which causes the adrenal cortex to produce excessive amounts or hormones including androgens

cushings characteristics

hirsuitism, obesity of face (moon face), neck and trunk. arms and legs are unaffected but skin takes on a dusky color

adrenal hyperplasia

caused by excessive cell development or adrenal cortex or tumors on the adrenal cortex

adrenogenital syndrome

adrenal cortex produces androgens instead of cortisone causing male sex characteristics

archard thiers

diabetes of bearded women

archard thiers characteristics

obesity, hirsuitism, hypertension, excessive levels of androgens (a combination of adrenogenital and cushings)

adrenal medullas hormones

epinephrine/adrenalin, norepinephrine/noradrenalin

action of epinephrine/adrenalin

fight or flight, dilates blood vessels, increases blood pressure, increases heart rate, dilates airways and elevates blood sugar levels

action of norepinephrine/noradrenalin

released in response to stimulation to low blood pressure, constricts blood pressure, regulates blood pressure (sympathetic nervous system)

epinephrine/adrenalin produced

body responses to fear, anger and stress. primarily responsible for fear response, given as a heart stimulant, given to counteract extreme allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock)

norepinephrine/noradrenalin produced

anger response

dilates more than constricts

epinephrine/adrenalin

constricts more than dilates

norepinephrine/noradrenalin

pancreas

dual function - endocrine and exocrine gland

pancreas location

below and behind the stomach

pancreas looks like

a carrot

islets of langerhans

(the endocrine portion of the pancreas) a collection of cells scattered throughout the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagons, important regulators of sugar metabolism. They are endocrine glands because they are ductless

hormones secreted by the pancreas

(2) insulin and glucagon

action of insulin

lowers blood sugar, regulates sugars and starches in the body

action of glucagon

raises blood sugar, (a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to produce glucose)

hyperglycemia

too much sugar

hypoglycemia

too little sugar

ovaries

size of a walnut, found in the lower abdomen

hormones secreted by the ovaries

estrogen and progesterone

action of ovaries

controls development of female reproductive tract, repairs uterus after menstruation and aids in further development of uterine lining

levels of estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovaries

is controlled by the gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland

stein levanthal

polycystic ovaries

polycystic ovaries

the ovary does not get all the hormones it needs for eggs to fully mature, cysts form which produce male hormones which further complicate ovarian function

testes

size of a walnut, found in the scotal sac

hormone secreted by the testes

testosterone

action of testosterone

controls male sex characteristics and sperm development

placenta

pancake shaped and found in the uterus during 40 weeks of pregnancy, connects the blood supplies of mother and baby, released at birth

hormones secreted by the placenta

estrogen and progesterone

estrogen secreted by the placenta

further develops breasts for lactation and aids in uterine contractibility

progesterone secreted by the placenta

enables uterus to stretch and contract, affects development of breasts and prepares breasts for lactation

glands that affect hair growth

(4) pituitary, thyroid, adrenals and ovaries

hirsuitism

a medical term for excessive or abnormal hair growth in a male pattern

types of hirsuitism

(3) Iatrogenic, Idiopathic, Familial

iatrogenic hirsuitism

medical term that indicates a recognised cause that has not been established. a uniform growth of fine hairs over the trunk, hands and feet. (unrelated to androgen dependant hair growth)

idiopathic hirsuitism

unknown cause, cannot be explained (shrug)

familial hirsuitism

inherited or ethnically explained

hypertrichosis

excessive and abnormal amount of hair, usually due to abnormal conditions brought about by disease or injury

superfluous

excessive hair which is not abnormal for patients age or sex but it simply undesirable

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