Microbiology - Chapter 19

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How is active and passive immunity different?

Active Immunity is from our body's response to a pathogen, it makes memory B-cells which last up to 10 yrs. Passive Immunity has no memory. It only lasts a few months.

Example of Active Immunity

Getting sick (natural). Vaccine (Artificial)

Example Passive Immunity

Injections of Antiboides/Immunoglobulin (artifical). Mom breastfeeding baby, IgG antibodies traveling to baby via placenta (passive).

Cytokines

Lymphocytes communicate with each other and with phagocytes by means of these special communicating molecules

Interleukins

special type of cytokines that are often used to communicate between white blood cells; effectiveness of immune system depends on the communication

Where are antigens?

Everywhere. Every cell has antigens (proteins).

Ag

antigen.

Antigen

antibody generator

Ab

Antibody - job is to bind to antigen. produced by B-cells. when Ab find Ag, they bind.

Antigen presenting cells

For antigens to trigger an immune response, they must be recognized by lymphocytes, esp. T cells. When phagocytes encounter microbes, they take them in and break them down. As the microbe is being broken down into its component parts, fragments of microbial antigen are then displayed on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell where they can be recognized by TH cells.

How do antibodies react to antigens?

Ab BINDs to Ag

IgM

Pentamer (can bind to 10 different pathogens). Good at Agglutination (prevents attachment). One of the first antibodies produced.

IgM Shape

Pentamer

IgA

Dimer. In secretions (mucus, saliva, breast milk). Active in Agglutination & Neutalization. Binds to antigen, prevents toxin from binding to cells and being toxic.

IgG

The best antibody. IgM works until IgGs are ready. Monomer. Does all three jobs: Neutralization, Aggulatination, Opsonization.

Oponization

Enhanced Phagocytosis. Phagocytes have special receptors on them which bind to the stem of antibodies. Phagocytes grab onto antibodies -- can take in microbes even if they have a capsule.

IgE

Monomer. Most often attached to basophils. Histomine. Tells basophils when to activate inflation.

IgD

Monomer. Not sure what it does. Antigen receptor. Attached to B-cells.

Major functions of antibody's

1) Neutralization 2) Opsonization 3) Agglunation

Agglutination

Clumps pathogens, preventing their spread and reducing the number of units that phagocytes need to pick up.

Neutralization

Bacteria, viruses and toxins are prevented from binding to host cells

Antibody-dependent cell mediated cytoxicity

Natural killer ells recognize bound antibody causing them ro release perforins and lytic enzymes

Which is the first antibody to be produced?

AgM

Which antibody is used in secreations?

AgA

Which is the freakin best antibody?

AgG

Which can cross from mother to child?

IgG (across placenta), IgA (breast milk)

Pentamer Antibody

IgM

Dimer Antibody

IgA

Monomer Antibody

AgG, IgD, IgE

Basophil Antibody

IgG

Not sure of the function - Antibody

IgD

Difference from Helper T cell and Cytoxic T cells? which interacts with antigen presenting cells and b cells?

Helper T Cells play central role in coordination of immune response, releasing cytokines that activate phagocytes and other lymphocytes. Cytotoxic T cells recognize and destroy body cells that are infected or cancerous. Activation by T-dependent antigens requires cytokines from TH cells

humoral immunity steps

(1) Phagocyte eats a pathogen and displays its Ag. The phagocyte is then known as an antigen presenting cell (APC).
(2) APC attracts Helper T cell
(3) Helper T Cell activates B cell
(4) B cell becomes plasma cells AND memory cells

How are plasma and memory B cells different?

Plasma cells are short-lived; antibody-producing; antibodies produced by plasma cells are released into blood and tissue where they will bind to the antigen recognized by the B cell.
Some of the B cells differentiate into memory B cells, long-lived B cells that can rapidly divide and differentiate when they encounter antigen. Memory B and T cells are the basis for the immunologic memory that protects you from repeated infections by some pathogens

cell mediated immunity steps

The action of TC cells, "cell mediated immunity," is important in controlling viral infections and cancer, also bacterial infections.
1. Activated TC binds to MHCI of infected host cell with its T-cell receptor.
2. TC releases perforins
3. Perforins penetrate host cell membrane and cause cytoplasm to leak out.

Cell mediated immunity is mediated by ___-lymphocytes. Humoral-mediated immunity is mediated by __-lymphocytes

-T,-B

Cell mediated immunity always involves cells _______ cells and is directed against _______ pathogens

-attacking -intracellular

How is the secondary response different from the primary response?

Primary response: when the body first encounters an antigen and the immune response is triggered, the first class of antibody to be produced is IgM. After a few days, the B cells switch into production of IgG antibodies which circulate through the body, helping to clear the pathogen. During primary response, it can take more than a week before there is strong production of IgG antibody. The secondary response is quite different. When the body encounters an antigen the second time, memory B cells rapidly divide and differentiate into plasma cells and begin production of IgG and IgM antibodies. IgG production is particulary strong and far exceeds the primary response.

What is one consequence to an over-reaction of the immune system?

Autoimmune disorders like: RA, diabetes, allergies.

How does our body prevent autoimmune disorders?

Self-tolerance. Clonal detetion - a process that eliminates T and B cells that would react to self-antigens.

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