Physiology of Muscular System
1) External Mobility, 2) Internal Mobility, 3) Heat production, 4) Posture Maintenance
Defined as the body moving its parts
Defined as the body moving as a whole
The special name given to the movement resulting from smooth muscle contractions
The physiological mechanism of thermogenesis is also important to maintain internal body temperature. When the body becomes chilled, skeletal muscles contract rapidly (shivering) to produce additional heat.
To maintain static positions such as sitting and standing, the skeletal muscles periodically contract to hold us in these postures. Muscles also contribute to joint stability.
These are referred to as muscle fibers becausee of their threadlike, slender shape, and they usually run the length of the muscle.
each muscle fiber contains the very fine longitudinal fibers, consisting of thick and thin myofilaments.
Refers to the skeletal muscles and related fascia in the muscular system.
Deep fascia forms a cord, anchoring the ends of muscle to bone
A broad, flat tendon the attaches skeletal muscle to bone, another muscle, or skin
(Many joints; 1 Tendon) Tendons that cross multiple joints, as in the hand and feet, are wrpped in this
(1 Joint; Many Tendons) Bandagelike retaining bands of connective tissue the keep tendons and tendon sheaths in place. They are primarily around the elbows, knees, ankles and wrists.
The cell membrane, encases cytoplasm or organelles
Cytoplasm, surrounds organelles
A fluid-filled system of cavities that contain sarcomeres. Plays a crucial role in musclular contraction by storing and releasing calcium ions.
Thin Myofilaments; molecules that are strung together, resembling a twisted double strand of beads to form two fibrous strands that twist around each other.
Thick filaments, have a chemical attraction to one another.
Ability to respond to a stimulus
Ability of muscle fibers to shorten
Ability of muscle fibers to lengthen
Ability of muscle fibers to return to their original shape after movement.
A single motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers to which it attaches constitute a functional unit.
The principle neurotransmitter involved in muscle contraction
Sliding Filaments Theory
The theory in which filaments slide past one another. - Actin filaments sliding toward the sarcomeres center (the H Band) quickly shorten the myofibril and thus the entire muscle fiber.
Within the muscle fibers of motor units, no partial contraction takes place.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ADP)
The energy needed for contraction comes from a compound called...
Basic contractile unit of a muscle.
Motor End Plate (MEP)
Section of the sarcolema that contains receptor sites.
Activation of additional motor units based on need
In the absence of oxygen
In the presence of oxygen
Wide central portion; bulk of muscle
(More Stability) Tendinous attachment of the muscle on the less movable bone or attachment during contraction.
(More Movable) Muscle attachment on more movable bone or attachment during contractions.
Prime Mover, Muscle causing a specific action
Muscle OPPOSING the agonist
Muscle AIDING by causing same movement as the agonist
(Stabalizers) Muscle acting as joint stabalizers so agonist can exert its action.
Receiprocal Inhibition States
When the agonist contracts the antagonist is inhibited and simultaneously relaxes.