Vocabulary for Ortho Overview (Steiner)

82 terms by jameswbell 

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Here's some vocab!!

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Ankylosis

restriction of motion in a joint

antalgic gain

gait pattern in which the weight is quickly removed from the extremity due to pain i.e. jumping up and down on one foot after a sprained ankle

arthrodesis

surgical stiffening

arthroplasty

surgery to restore motion and function to a joint

capsule

a complicated soft tissue structure that envelopes a joint, providing stability and separating it from surrounding structures; includes ligaments and tendinous expansions

Coxa

hip bone or joint

cubitus

elbow

diaphysis

the shaft of a bone

dislocation

complete separation or displacement of the surfaces of a joint

effusion

escape of fluid, usually synovial, into a joint cavity

Enthesis

the site of attachment of ligament or tendon to a bone. The root word used in the description of terms comely used in the discussion of inflammatory arthritis. The primary pathologic site in the spondyloarthopathies (enthesitis, enthesopathy, or enthesophyte). Enthesitis may lead to erosion or the formation of reactive new bone.

Extensor

the dorsal or posterior surface

Flexor

ventral or anterior surface. Plantar, palmar, or volar

Functional

nonroganic, not caused by a structural defect

Genu

knee or knee join

hallux

great toe

hemarthrosis

extravasation of blood into a joint cavity, usually caused by a ligament injury or fracture

ligament

a band of capsular fibrous tissue that connects bones (joints), providing support and strength

meniscus

a crescent shapred disc of fibrocartilage attached to an articular surface

metaphysis

the broad, vascular part of a bone near a joint

mortise

a slot or groove into which some other part fits to join securely (ankle mortise: the relationship of the talus to the malleoli)

orthopedic

"straight child"

Osteonecrosis

death of bone (aseptic necrosis or avascular necrosis)

Palmar

the anterior surface of the hand

Parethesia

abnormal sensation, such as burning and tingling

Plantar

the sole or flexor surface of the foot

Pollex

thumb

radicular

spinal nerve involvement

sciatica

a general term used to describe pain in the thigh caused by spinal compression of one of the sciatic nerve roots

Spondylitis

inflammation invoking the spinal coloumn

Spondylolisthesis

slipping of a vertebra, usually caused by spondylitis

Spondylolysis

dissolution or loosening of a vertebra

Spondylosis

disease, usually degenerative, of a vertebra

Sprain

injury to a joint ligament or capsule

Strain

injury to a muscle or tendon

Subluxation

incomplete dislocation

synovium

lining of a joint. The synovium produces fluid for joint nutrition

Talipes

talus + pes (ankle + foot)

tenosynovium

the synovial sheath in which tendons move, usually at joint levels

Motion Terms

Abduction

movement away from the middles line (in the hand, the long finger is the middle line)

Adduction

movement toward the middle line

Eversion

turning outward (in the foot, valgus, eversion and pronation are frequent synonyms)

Extension

straightening of a joint

Flexion

bending of a joint

inversion

turing inward (in the foot, varus, inversion and supination are frequent synonyms)

Pronation

to rotate the forearm in such a way that the palm looks backward when the arm is in the anatomic position)

Supination

to rotate the forearm in such a way that the palm looks forward when the arm is in the anatomic position

Deformities

Calcaneus

dorsiflexion of he foot

cavus

hollow; abnormally high arch

Equinus

plantar flexion of the foot

Kyphosis

curvature of the spine with posterior convexity

Lordosis

curvature of the spine with anterior convexity

Planus

flat; abnormally low arch

recurvation

backward bending or hyperexteions

Scoliosis

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

Valgus

the distal part angulates away from the midline of the body

Varus

the distal part angulates toward the midline of the body

FRACTURE terminology

Avulsion

"chip;" small fracture near a join that usually has a ligament or tendon attached

closed

"simple;" fracture not associated with an open wound to the skin

comminuted

fracture with multiple fragments

displaced

fracture whose ends are separated

epiphyseal

fracture of the growth plate, usually in a long bone

greenstick

incomplete fracture that usually occurs in kids

impacted

fracture whose ends are driven into each other

intraarticular

fracture that involves the joint surface of a bone

occult

clinical condition that suggests a fracture; roentorgrams 2-3 weeks later may show the fracture line or new bone formation

open

"compound;" fracture in which there is an open wound of the son and soft parts that lead into the fracture

pathologic

fracture that occurs because the bone is weakened by some abnormal condition

stress

fracture that occurs when weak bone is stressed normally = insufficiency stress fracture
fracture that occurs when normal bone is stressed excessively = fatigue stress fracture.

usually only seen in weight-bearing bones

torus

buckle fracture caused by compression of the cortex; most common in the distal portion of the radius of a child

MISC FRACTURE TERMINOLOGY

Alignment

rotation or angular postion

apposition

amount of end-to-end contact of the fracture

delayed union

fracture healing that is slower than normal

dislocation

disruption in the continuity of a joint

fracture-dislocation

dislocation that occurs in conjunction with a fracture of a joint. If incomplete, it is called a fracture-subluxation

malunion

healing in an unsatisfactory position

nonunion

failure of a bony healing

pseudarthrosis

failure of a bone healing that produces a "false joint" consisting of soft tissue

subluxation

partial disruption in the continuity of a joint (an incomplete dislocation)

Here's a practical note..

Fractures do not dislocate, they DISPLACE. They are thus described according to the type, place in the bone, the amount of displacement, and angulation. Rotation (torsion) is often difficult to assess roentgenographically but relatively easy to assess clinically. Rotation is usually described in reference to the DISTAL fragment, as is angulation.

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