The most common are to persuade, to inform, or to entertain
The way that the writer chooses to organize or structure his or her writing. The most common are chronological, cause and effect, compare and contrast, spatial, and order of importance.
a position that is supported by evidence in which the writer wants to persuade the readers to accecpt or reject an opinion on a subject
concrete details to support an author's argument or claim which should be adequate, appropriate, and accurate; readers must assess quality of the evidence presented
a statement that can be proven true by observation or verication from an authoritative source
a personal belief or feeling that cannot be proven true although it may be a valid opinion
reasoning that is false such as a hasty generalization, circular reasoning, cause and effect fallacy, either or fallacy, or the bandwagon approach
a broad statement that is based on evidence
a false reasoning statement that is made without considering all of the facts; watch out for over-generalizing with extreme words such as "always", "never", "all", "none"
a false reasoning statement in which the writer/speaker tries to fool the audience by restating the opinion in different words
a false reasoning statement in which the writer/speaker presents that one event caused another even though it is not the case
a false reasoning statement in which the writer/speaker presents there are only two sides to an issue even though it is not the case
Bias refers to the preference, partiality, or prejudice that the author shows toward the subject. The author's bias is revealed in the choices made about content and in the tone or mood of the writing.
an organized attempt to influence a large audience; it's an emotional appeal to confuse and convince readers; the most common types are bandwagon, testimonial, snob appeal, name-calling, and stereotyping
type of propaganda that urges you to do or believe something because everyone else does
type of propaganda that uses a famous person to testify that he or she supports the issue or uses the product
type of propaganda that suggests that by using a product you can be superior to others
type of propaganda that treats all members of a particular group as if they are exactly the same
type of propaganda that attacks people by giving them negative labels instead of giving reasons and evidence
the way the author views the subject of the writing; rereading the introduction and conclusion and looking for "emotional" words may help to identify the author's perspective