Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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whole grain

The entire kernel of grain including the bran layers, the germ, and the endosperm.

bran

The protective outer layers of whole grains. It is a concentrated source of fiber.

endosperm

The largest portion of a kernel grain. It is primarily starch.

germ

The embryo or sprouting portion of a kernel of grain. It contains vegetable oil, protein, fiber, and vitamins.

enriched grains

Grains to which specific amounts of nutrients have been added.

empty kcalories

Foods that contribute energy but few other nutrients.

simple carbohydrates

Carbohydrates known as sugars that include monosaccharides and disaccharides.

complex carbohydrates

Carbohydrates composed of sugar molecules linked together in straight or branching chains. They include glycogen, starches and fibers.

monosaccharide

A single sugar unit, such as glucose.

disaccharide

A sugar formed by linking two monosaccharides.

glucose

A monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body. It is the sugar referred to as blood sugar.

galactose

A monosaccharide that combines with glucose to form lactose (milk sugar).

fructose

A monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate found in fruit.

sucrose

A disaccharide that is formed by linking fructose and glucose. Commonly known as table sugar or white sugar.

lactose

A disaccharide that is formed by linking galactose and glucose.

maltose

A disaccharide made up of 2 molecules of glucose. It is formed in the intestines during starch digestion.

hydrolysis reaction

A type of chemical reaction in which a large molecule is broken into two smaller molecules by the addition of water.

condensation reaction

A type of chemical reaction in which two molecules are joined to form a larger molecule and water is released.

oligosaccharides

Short chain carbohydrates containing 3 to 10 sugar units.

polysaccharides

Carbohydrates containing many sugar units linked together.

glycogen

A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure. It is the storage form of carbohydrate in animals.

starch

A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branching chains. The bonds that hold the glucose molecules together can be broken by human digestive enzymes.

dietary fiber

A mixture of indigestible carbohydrates and lignin that is found intact in plants.

functional fiber

Isolated indigestible carbohydrates that have been shown to have beneficial physiological effects in humans.

total fiber

The sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber.

soluble fiber

Fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water to form viscous solutions and be broken down by the intestinal microflora. It includes pectins, gums, and some hemicelluloses.

insoluble fiber

For the most part does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. It includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses, and lignin.

lactase

An enzyme located in the brush border of the small intestine that breaks the disaccharide lactose into glucose and galactose.

lactose intolerance

The inability to digest lactose because of a reduction in the leves of the enzyme lactase. It causes symptons such as intestinal gas and bloating.

resistant starch

Starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy people.

cellular respiration

The reactions that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

glycolysis (anaerobic metabolism)

Metabolic reactions in the cytosol of the cell that split glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, yielding two ATP molecules.

aerobic metabolism

Metabolism in the presence of oxygen, which can completely break down glucose to yield carbon dioxide, water, and as many as 38 ATP molecules.

gluconeogenesis

The synthesis of glucose from simple noncarbohydrate molecules. Amino acids from protein are the primary source of carbons for glucose synthesis. Occurs in liver and kidney cells.

ketones or ketone bodies

Molecules formed in the liver when there is not sufficient carbohydrates to completely metabolize the 2-carbon units produce from fat breakdown.

diabetes mellitus

A disease caused by either insufficient insulin production or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin. It results in elevated blood glucose levels.

hypolycemia

A low blood glucose level, usually below 40 to 50 mg of glucose per 100 mL of blood.

plasma

The liquid portion of the blood that remains when the blood cells are removed.

glycemic response

The rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a particular food or meal is consumed.

glycemic index

A ranking of the effect on blood glucose of a food of a certain carbohydrate content relative to an equal amount of carbohydrate from a reference food such as white bread or glucose.

glycemic load

An index of the glycemic response that occurs after eating specific foods. It is calculated by multiplying a food's glycemic index by the amount of available carbohydrate in a serving of a food.

insulin

A hormone made in the pancreas that allows the uptake of glucose by body cells and has other metabolic effects such as stimulating protein and fat synthesis and the synthesis of glycogen in liver and muscle.

glucagon

A hormone made in the pancreas that stimulates the breakdown of liver glycogen and the synthesis of glucose to increase blood sugar.

type 1 diabetes

A form of diabetes that is caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency.

type 2 diabetes

A form of diabetes that is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.

metabolic syndrome

A collection of health risks, including excess fat in the abdominal region, high blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high blood glucose that increases the chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Also known as syndrome X.

pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

A fasting blood glucose level above the normal range but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.

gestational diabetes

A form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and resolves after the baby is born.

dental caries

The decay and deterioration of teeth caused by acid produced when bacteria on the teeth metabolized carbohydrates.

hemorrhoids

Swollen veins in the anal or rectal area.

diverticula

Sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease diverticulosis. When these become inflamed, the condition is called diverticulitis.

carcinogens

Cancer-causing substances.

mutations

Changes in DNA caused by chemical or physical agents.

malignancy

A mass of cells showing uncontrolled growth, a tendency to invade and damage surrounding tissues, and an ability to seed daughter growths to sites remote from the original growth.

sugar alcohols

Sweeteners that are structurally related to sugars but provide less energy than monosaccharides and disaccharides because they are not well absorbed.

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