The embryo or sprouting portion of a kernel of grain. It contains vegetable oil, protein, fiber, and vitamins.
Carbohydrates composed of sugar molecules linked together in straight or branching chains. They include glycogen, starches and fibers.
A monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body. It is the sugar referred to as blood sugar.
A disaccharide that is formed by linking fructose and glucose. Commonly known as table sugar or white sugar.
A disaccharide made up of 2 molecules of glucose. It is formed in the intestines during starch digestion.
A type of chemical reaction in which a large molecule is broken into two smaller molecules by the addition of water.
A type of chemical reaction in which two molecules are joined to form a larger molecule and water is released.
A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked together in a highly branched structure. It is the storage form of carbohydrate in animals.
A carbohydrate made of many glucose molecules linked in straight or branching chains. The bonds that hold the glucose molecules together can be broken by human digestive enzymes.
Isolated indigestible carbohydrates that have been shown to have beneficial physiological effects in humans.
Fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water to form viscous solutions and be broken down by the intestinal microflora. It includes pectins, gums, and some hemicelluloses.
For the most part does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in the large intestine. It includes cellulose, some hemicelluloses, and lignin.
An enzyme located in the brush border of the small intestine that breaks the disaccharide lactose into glucose and galactose.
The inability to digest lactose because of a reduction in the leves of the enzyme lactase. It causes symptons such as intestinal gas and bloating.
The reactions that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.
glycolysis (anaerobic metabolism)
Metabolic reactions in the cytosol of the cell that split glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, yielding two ATP molecules.
Metabolism in the presence of oxygen, which can completely break down glucose to yield carbon dioxide, water, and as many as 38 ATP molecules.
The synthesis of glucose from simple noncarbohydrate molecules. Amino acids from protein are the primary source of carbons for glucose synthesis. Occurs in liver and kidney cells.
ketones or ketone bodies
Molecules formed in the liver when there is not sufficient carbohydrates to completely metabolize the 2-carbon units produce from fat breakdown.
A disease caused by either insufficient insulin production or decreased sensitivity of cells to insulin. It results in elevated blood glucose levels.
The rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a particular food or meal is consumed.
A ranking of the effect on blood glucose of a food of a certain carbohydrate content relative to an equal amount of carbohydrate from a reference food such as white bread or glucose.
An index of the glycemic response that occurs after eating specific foods. It is calculated by multiplying a food's glycemic index by the amount of available carbohydrate in a serving of a food.
A hormone made in the pancreas that allows the uptake of glucose by body cells and has other metabolic effects such as stimulating protein and fat synthesis and the synthesis of glycogen in liver and muscle.
A hormone made in the pancreas that stimulates the breakdown of liver glycogen and the synthesis of glucose to increase blood sugar.
type 1 diabetes
A form of diabetes that is caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency.
type 2 diabetes
A form of diabetes that is characterized by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
A collection of health risks, including excess fat in the abdominal region, high blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and high blood glucose that increases the chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Also known as syndrome X.
pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance
A fasting blood glucose level above the normal range but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
A form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and resolves after the baby is born.
The decay and deterioration of teeth caused by acid produced when bacteria on the teeth metabolized carbohydrates.
Sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease diverticulosis. When these become inflamed, the condition is called diverticulitis.
A mass of cells showing uncontrolled growth, a tendency to invade and damage surrounding tissues, and an ability to seed daughter growths to sites remote from the original growth.