Final Exam Geography

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amenities

Factors that make a place appealing to prospective inhabitants

brownfields

Formal industrial areas that are abandoned. Usually located next to or in poor neighborhoods where minorities reside. There may be some toxic wastes in these areas.

back office

Non service-oriented suburban office where the non-glamorous activities of a business occur such as document filing. Remember picture of brick building with no windows.

Burgess

Created the "Zone Model" of urban development in 19201. Centered on the the idea that metropolitan areas consisted of zones based on land value as it relates to geographic accessibility. An ecological model with ethnic groups as the species.

central place theory

a set of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban service centers

centrifugal forces

any factor that disrupts the internal order of a country

ecotourism

• responsible travel that doesn't harm ecosystems or the well-being of local people

edge city

a new urban cluster of economic activity that surrounds 19th century downtowns

endocrine disrupters

They may act as synthetic estrogens, interfere with testosterone or otherwise interfere in the processes of sexual reproduction and maturation

endocrine disrupters

Dioxin, PCBs, phthalates (used in PVC plastics and "vinyl," as well as pesticides and cosmetics), lead, and mercury

exurban development

refers to non-rural development that is within a metropolitan area, but outside the urban area.

gentrification

The displacement of lower income residents by higher income residents as buildings in deteriorated areas of city centers are restored.

globalization

the binding together of all the lands and peoples of the world into an integrated system driven by capitalistic free markets, in which cultural diffusion is rapid, independent states are weakened, and cultural homogenization is encouraged

ground water

Water pumped from underground by using wells and reaching either the water table or an aquifer. Can be overused and cause subsidence if the rate of recharge is lower than the rate of discharge.

Hydraulic civilization model

Developed by Karl Wittfogel. A civilization model based on theory that large-scale irrigation was the prime mover behind urbanization and that a class of technical specialists were the first urban dwellers.

Wittfogel

who developed the hydraulic civilization model

independent invention

a cultural innovation that is developed in two or more locations by individuals or groups working independently

montreal protocal

the greatest success so far in implementing an international environmental agreement

morphology

the physical form of the city, which consists of street patterns, building sizes and shapes, architecture, and density. It makes statements about how cultures occupy and shape space

Mueller development

New idea in Austin is to combine different landuses in a single area
This is actually an old way of creating urban space

outsourcing

the physical separation of some economic activities from the main production facility, usually for the purpose of employing cheap labor

primary industry

an industry engaged in the extraction of natural resources, such as agriculture, lumbering, and mining

redlining

a practice by banks and mortgage companies of demarcating areas considered to be high risk for housing loans
Restricted areas/homes for certain people.

secondary industries

an industry engaged in processing raw materials into finished products; manufacturing

Sennett

famous critic of the suburb

sustainability

the survival of a land-use system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base, allowing generation after generation to continue to live there

tree line

the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond this, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture).

high density

In austin the triangle is _________

UNO

divides West Campus into four subdistricts, each with slightly different development rules

urban decentralization

the tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city

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