Job performance evaluation for the president, Congress, or other public official or institution that is generated by public opinion polls and typically reported as a percentage
Nickname for the power of the president to use the attention associated with the office to persuade the media, Congress, and the public to support his policy position.
Executive branch organizations responsible for carrying out federal policy in a specific set of issue areas
Heads of cabinet departments and chief advisers to the president on the issues under their jurisdiction.
Chief of Staff
Person who coordinates and oversees interactions among the president, his personal staff, and his cabinet secretaries
Federal employees hired through a merit based system to implement federal programs and who are expected to be neutral in their political affiliation.
Cold War (1948-89)
Economic competition and political conflict between Communist and democratic nations
President Franklin Roosevelt's proposal to add new justices to the Supreme Court so that the Court would uphold his policies
Situation when one party controls the executive and the other party controls the legislature.
Executive Office of the President
Organization that houses all staff who work directly for the president.
Budget of all federal programs, typically released by the president in early February
Federal Budget Deficit
Difference between the amount of money the federal government spends in outlays and the amount of money it receives from revenues.
Federal Reserve Board
Independent regulatory commission that affects the money supply by setting the reserve requirements of member banks, establishing a discount rate for loans to members banks, and buying or selling government securities
Radio addresses by President Franklin D Roosevelt that were the first regular communications from the president to a large portion of the American public.
Set of treaties that define lawful military combar and protect the rights of prisoners of war.
Lyndon B Johnson's program for expanding the federal social welfare programs in health care, education, and house, and ending poverty.
Process whereby the House brings charges against the president (or other federal officials) that will, upon conviction by the Senate, remove him from office.
Power of the president to speak for the nation on the world stage and to set the policy agenda at home.
Specially created court that determines the innocence or guilt of enemy combatants
Means of controlling the money supply through control of interest rates and availability of credit, managed by a central bank, the Federal Reserve.
Sum of loans and interest that the federal government has accrued over time to pay for the federal deficit.
Franklin D Roosevelt's program for ending the Great Depression through government intervention in the economy and a set of safety-net programs for workers.
Lengthy pieces of legislation that include provisions affecting a wide range of programs
Automatic veto that occurs when Congress goes out of session within ten days of submitting a bill to the president and the president has no signed it.
Individuals appointed to federal jobs by the president with the explicitly task of carrying out his political and partisan agenda.
Presidential Directive on National Security
Presidential directive that deals with government action in the area of foreign policy and is not publicly released
Downturn in economic activity, with declines in employment levels, income, retail spending, and industrial production.
Written remarks issued by the president when signing a bill into law that often reflect his interpretation of how the law should be implemented.
State of the Union Address
Speech given by the president to Congress every January on the condition of the country
Orders issued by a legal authority demanding that an individual appear to testify at, or turn over documents relevant to, a legal proceeding
War Powers Act (1973)
Provides that the president cannot send troops into military conflict for more than 90 days without seeking a formal declaration of war from Congress.
Watergate Scandal (1972-74)
Scandal uncovered by Washington Post reporters that led to the resignation of President Richard M Nixon.