What is behavior defined as?
It's defined as the way an organism responds to changes in its internal or external environment
Can be innate such a running for shelter upon hearing a loud noise
inborn, initiave common sense
Someone has to teach it
Change in enviroment
The result after the action
The study of behavior and its relationship to its evolutionary origins
What are the three scientific scientists?
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and Niko Tinbergen
Known for extensive studies of honeybee communication and famous description of the bee waggle dance
Famous for elucidation of fixed action pattern
Famous for imprinting
A rapid learning process by which a newborn or very young animal establishes a behavior pattern of recognition and attraction to another animal of its own kind or to a substitute or an object identified as the parent.
fixed action pattern
An innate behavior that appears to be substantially complete the first time the organism encounters the relevant stimulus.
fixed action pattern: What are FAPs initatied by?
fixed action pattern: What happens when sign stimuli is exchanged?
It's exchanged between members of the same species called releasers
fixed action pattern: Example
Sticklback fish attacks only fish with red on it
sophisticated process in which the responses of the organism are modified as a result of experiance
Sophisticated process in which responses of organism are modified as a result of experience
Learning: What is learning tied to?
It's tied to length of life and complexity of brain.
One of the simplest forms of learning in which an animal comes to ignore a persistent stimulus because it's use to it.
One type of learning in which one stimulus become linked to another through experiance
Associative Learning: Classical Conditioning
From Ivan Pavlov in 1920's. Dogs salvate from food, but by training them, assoicateing sound of bell with food would make their response salivate
Operant Conditioning (Trial and Error conditioning)
Animal associates behaviors w/ reward or punishment. B. F. Skinner, rat was placed in cage and pushes lever to get pellet.
Learning that occurs during a sensitive or critical period in early life of individual and irreversible for length of period. has to bond or else it will die
Imprinting: Konrad Lorenz
proved ducklings and geese hatchlings follow what they see first.
Any kind of interaction between two or more animals of same species. Involves cooperation, agnostic, dominance hierarchies, territoriality and altruism
Social Behavior: Cooperation
Enables individuals to carry out behavior such as hunting, which you can do as a group more successfully then alone
Social Behavior: Agnostic Behavior
Aggressive behavior. Just the behavior to look aggressive and intimidating to gain access to necessities
Pecking order behaviors that dictate social position. Each animal threatens all animals beneath pecking order.
Area an organism defends and from which other members of the community are excluded.
Territoriality: What are territoriality defended by?
Established and defended by agnostic behaviors.
Territoriality: What is this used for?
It's used for capturing food, mating, and rearing young. The size of the territory varies w/ its function and amount of resources available
Behavior that reduces an individual's reproductive fitness (animal may die) to increase fitness of the group or family.
Altruism: Kin selection
When individual sacrifices itself for the family, it's sacrificing itself for relatives (the kin) which share similar genes.
Altruism: Kin selection: How does kin selection work?
The kin are selected as the recipients of the altruistic behavior. They are saved and can pass on their genes.
How did altruism evolve?
It evolved b/c it increases the number of copies of a gene common to a related group