# Ross Vet Prep Medical Mathematics Toxicology Vocabulary

## 38 terms · Ross Vet Prep Medical Mathematics Toxicology Vocabulary

### Toxicology

The science of toxicants

### Xenobiotics

Foreign chemicals that the body does not produce (a property of both drugs and toxicants)

### Pharmacokinetic

An alteration of absorption, distribution, biotransformation or excretion

### Pharmacodynamic

Two drugs act on the same receptors

### Toxicant

Any substance (solid liquid or gas) that when applied or introduced into the body may interfere with life processes or biological functions of the cells of the animal; a poison

Plant Toxin

Fungal Toxin

Animal Toxin

### Toxin

A poison from a biologic process ; a biotoxin

### Toxic

Used to describe the deleterious or undesirable effects of poisons

### Therapeutic

Used to describe the wanted or desirable effects of a drug

### Toxicosis

A disease caused by exposure to a poison; poisoning or intoxication

### Toxicity

The amount of a poison that under certain circumstances will cause toxic effects

### Acute Toxicity

The effect of a single dose or multiple doses during a 24 hour period

### Subacute Toxicity

Is the effect produced by daily exposure from one day to 30 days

### Subchronic Toxicity

Is the effect of exposure from 30 days to 90 says

### Chronic Toxicity

Is the effect produced by daily exposure for a period of 3 months or more

### Chronicity Factor

The ratio between acute LD 50 and chronic LD 50

1 mg/kg or less

> 1-50 mg/kg

> 50-500 mg/kg

> 0.5-5 g/kg

>5-15 g/kg

> 15 g/kg

### Toxic Dose

A dose producing undesirable hemalogical, pathological or biochemical effects

### The highest nontoxic dose (HNTD)

The highest or largest dose which does not result in undesirable or toxic alterations (clinical, hematologic, biochemical, or pathologic alterations)

### Maximum tolerated dose or minimum toxic dose (MTD)

Similar to the HNTD

### The toxic dose low (TDL)

The lowest dose which produces toxic alterations and administering twice this dose will not cause death

### LD0

The highest nonlethal toxic dose

### The toxic dose high (TDH)

The dose which produces toxic alterations and administering twice this dose will result in death

### No-effect level (maximum nontoxic level)

the amount of a chemical that can be ingested without causing any deaths, illness or toxic alterations in any of the animals for the stated period (usually 90 days to two years or more depending on the species)

### The lethal dose

the dose that causes death in any animal during the period of observation

### LD50

The dose that kills 50% of the animals in a group

### LD100

The lowest dose that kills all the animals in a group

### Hazard (risk)

Hazard is the danger from the possibility of exposure-how likely or unlikely it is

### Toxicity

Toxicity is the danger based on the amount of substance

### Risk Factor

The ratio between toxicity and use level. The higher the ratio, the less risk

### Cumulative Toxicant

A toxicant with a chronicity factor greater than 2.0