Microbiology Chapter 6

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Bacterial Groups.

Traponemia padillium

causes syphillus
Gm- spirochetes

Borrelia

gram- spirochetes
causes lime disease

Leptospiria

Gram- spirochete
causes Leptospirosis in animals
liver/kidney disease in humans

Spirochetes

gram-
found in cotainated H20 soil and sewage
all are spiral
all motile via Axial Filaments

Sprillium volutan

Helical/Vibrod gm-
Harmless
Metachromatic grams
Microaerophilic found in water

Campylobacter fetus

Helical/Vibrod gm-
causes spontaneous abortion in animals

Azospirillium

Helical/Vibrod gm-
Fixes Nitrogen

Bdellovibrio

Helical/Vibrod gm-
parasitic to other bacteria

Helical/Vibrod gm- Bacteria

found in water and soil
pathogens of the GI tract and oral mucosa of humans
Helical or Curved
all have flagellas
some fix Nitrogen

Psudomonas

aerobic gm- rods with polar flagella
resistant to most antibiotics and disinfectants
opportunistic
needs few nutrients to grow
produces pigment (turns agar blue/green)
many are psychophilic

Legionella

Causes Legionairs disease
Aerobic gm- Rod/cocci

Rhizobilum

Aerobic gm- Rod/cocci
Found covering plants
Nitrogen fixing microbe

Brucella

Aerobic gm- rod/cocci
non-motile
can survive phagocytosis

Bordetella

Aerobic gm- Rod/Cocci
Has Thick capsulle
causes Whooping Cough in man
Causes Kennel Cough in dogs

Aerobic gram- Rod/Cocci

Found in soil and water
Parasitic to animals

Facultatively Anaerobic Rods Gram-

Found in soil, plants, GI tracts of man and animals
3 Families (that all end in -aceae)
Enterobacteriaceae
Vibronaceae
Pasteruellaceae

Enterobacteriaceae

Facultative Anaerobic Rob Gram-
Found in the GI tact of man and animal
Some are normal flora and some are pathogenic
Have peritichous Filagella if motile
Have many pili
Facultative anaerobes that ferment Lactose
EX. Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia

Vibrionaceae

All are aquatic
Ex. Vibroid (genus)

Pasterullaceae

Pleomorphic
Non-motile
Ex. Pasteurella, Hemophilus

Vibrio (genus)

Curved rod-Vibrionaceae
Most aren't pathogenic
Can cause Cholera and gastroenteritis
Transmitted via shellfish (mostly shimp)

Pasteurella

Pasteuruellaceae- Facilitative Anaerobic Gm- Rods
pathogen of domestic animals

Hemophilus

Pasteuruellaceae- Facilitative Anaerobic Gm- Rods
In mucus membrane
Causes meningitis, otitus media, puerperal sepsis(death after childbirth)

Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods

Ex. Bacteriods, Fusobacterium

Bacteriods

Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods
OBLIGATE anaerobes
make up 30% of bacteria in feces

Fusobacterium

Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods
long with pointed ends
Causes dental abcesses

Dissimilatory Sulfate or Sulfur Reducing Bacteria

Found in mud sediments
Mesophilic or Thermophilic
OBLIGATE anaerobes
All are Gram-
Uses sulfur compound as final e- receptor
Ex. Desulfovibrio

Anaerobic Gram- Cocci

Round shape
Dont need oxygen
Ex Veillonella

Veillonella

Anaerobic gm- cocci
non-motile
has capsule
*part of dental plaque

Rickettsia (genus name)

OBLIGATE intracellular parasite
Cultured in yolk sacs of chicken embryos
Ex Rickettsia

Rickettsia

Obligate intracellular parasite
Gram-
Non-motile
Rocky Mountain Fever

Chlamydias

Obligate intracellular parasite
Gram-
Cocciod
Non Motile
Cultured in lab animals (via cell cultures or yolk)

Gliding

Gram-
Glide over surfaces
Leave trail of slime
Embedded in slime layer
Ex. Cytophaga

Cytophaga

Gliding Bacteria
Gram-
Breakdown plant material in soil

Gliding and Fruiting Bacteria

Gram-
form fruiting body (which germinates into new cells)
Important in nature (degrades cellulose)
Ex. Myxobacteria

Sheathed Bacteria

Gram-
Common in water rich with Nitrogen
Can become a problem for sewage treatment plants
Polar Flagella
Incased in Tube/Sheath
Ex. Spareotilus natan

Budding

Gram-
Reproduce via budding
Ex. Hypomicrobium

Appendaged

Gram-
Have prosthecae (stalks that help to anchor organism)
Ex. Caulobacter

Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria

Gram-
Use inorganic material for energy
Ex. Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria, Nitrifiers

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria

Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
Gram- Rods or spirals
Uses S compound for energy and oxygen as final e- receptor (aerobic and part of S cycle)

Nitrifiers

Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
Gram-
Fixes Nitrogen into a more usable form
Oxidizes inorganic N (uses ammonia or nitrates and converts them into nitates)
Important in Agriculture
Ex. Nitrobactor, Nitrosomonas

Phototrophic Anoxygenic Bacteria

Dont generate Oxygen as part of photosynthesis
Dont use water as source of e-
found where there is little light and no Oxygen
Have unique form of Chlorophyll (called bacteriochlorophyll)
Ex. Purple and Green Bacteria

Purple Sulfur Bacteria

Gram-
Found in sulfur springs
Gas Vacuoles and sulfur granulas
use various material WITH sulfur
Give off sulfur gas
EX. Chromatium, Thiospirillium, Thiodictyon

Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria

Gram-
Found in aquatic and moist soil/bogs
Use material WITHOUT sulfur
Doesn't have gas vacuoles
Ex. Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas

Green Sulfur Bacteria

Gram-
Found in sulfur springs
Gas Vacuoles and sulfur granulas
use various material WITH sulfur
Give off sulfur gas
Chlorosome as light capture pigment
NO FLAGELLA
Ex. Chlorobium, Pelodictum

Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria

Gram-
Found in aquatic and moist soil/bogs
Use material WITHOUT sulfur
Doesn't have gas vacuoles
Grow in long filaments
Ex. Chloroflexus

Staphylococci

Gram+ grape-like clusters
Facultative Survive High Osmotic Pressure
Catalase+ (enzyme that breaks down hydrogen)
Produce toxins
Ex. S. aureus, S. epidermis, S. saphrophyticus

Leukocidin

Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)

Necrotizing exotoxin

Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Found around hair folicules

Exfoliative Toxin

Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Causes skin to peel of in sheets

Enterotoxin

Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Causes N/V in food poisoning R/T staph infection

S. aureus

most harmful Staph infection
MERSA and Versa

S. epidermis

Staph infection on skin

S. saphrophyticus

Staph found in soil
Can cause UTI

Streptococcus

Gram+ chains of cocci
Some can cause disease
Aerotolerant
No catalase
Produce Toxins
Classified by reaction in blood agar

Erythrogenic Toxin

Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
Causes redness of the skin

Streptolysin Toxin

Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
kills RBC's

Strpetokinase

Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
Dissolves blood clots

Alpha Hemolysis

Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
Red-->Green (incomplete breakdown of RBC's)

Beta Hemolysis

Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
Red--> Clear (complete breakdown of RBC's)

Non-Hemolytic

Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
No Change in agar color (grows but doesn't destroy RBC's)

Bacillus

Gm+ Endospore forming rods
Obligate or Facultative aerobes
Ex. Anthracis

Anthracis

Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Bacillus group
Causes Anthrax
Has Capsule

Clostridium

Gm+ Endospore forming rods
"Organism of Death" Produces the smell of death
Ex. Tetani, Perfringens, Botulinum

Tetani

Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes Tetanus

Perfringens

Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes Gan-green

Botulinum

Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes botulism

Lactobacillus

REGULAR, Non-soring Gm+ rods
Aerotolerant produces Lactic acid
Grows in acidic envrionment
Ex. L. casei and used to make pickles and yogurt

Corynebacteria

IRREGULAR, Non-sporing Gm+ rods
Club shaped
Found in throat
Most are facultative
Irregular morphology with age
Meta-chromatic granules
Causes acne and diptheria

Mycoplasm

No cell wall
Sterols in membrane
Arobic or Facultative
Must grow on media w/sterols (looks like fried eggs)
Pleomorphic
Resistant to penicillin
VERY SMALL
Causes walking pneumonia

Mycobacteria

Saprophytes
Non-motile rods
grow as filaments
Pathogenic forms cause TB and Leprosy

Nocardioforms or Nocardia

Grow as filaments BUT break off into pieces to reproduce
Found in soil
NOT TYPICALLY PATHOGENIC

Archobacteria

Halophiles- require HIGH salt concentration
They differ from Salt tolerant b/c the REQUIRE the salt not just tolerate it
Ex Sulfolobus

Sulfolobus

Archobacteria
Requires salt to survive
Found in sulfur springs
Thermophilic

Cyanobacteria

AKA Blue Green Algae
Oxygenic Phototrophs
Diverse group
Carry out photosynthesis
Found in water, soil and the surface of rocks
Move by gliding
Ex Anabeana (green pearls) Oscillatoria

Actinomycetes

Long branched filaments (called mycellia)
Reproduce via asexual spores
Ex. Streptomyces

Streptomyces

Source of antibiotics
Strict Anerobes
Produce Streptomycine

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