Ch 19 Reproductive System

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Dr Davila Medical Careers Institute, ECPI University Human Anatomy & Physiology II BIO 104

gonads

reproductive organs

gametes

sex cells

ovum

female gamete made by ovaries; contain 23 chromosomes; aka egg

ovaries

female gonads; produce ova and secrete the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone (also inhibin)

testes

male gonads; produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones testosterone and inhibin

spermatozoa

male gametes made by testes; contain 23 chromosomes; aka sperm

fertilization

fusion of male and female gametes; creates a diploid zygote with 46 chromosomes

zygote

fertilized egg

embryo

developing human organism from 1 week after fertilization through 2 months

pathway of sperm

testis→epididymis→ductus deferencs→ejaculatory duct→urethra

epididymis

organ in scrotum on top of testis; stores sperm, and they mature here

scrotum

external sac containing the testes

ductus deferens

muscular tube from epididymis to ejaculatory duct; conducts sperm outward

ejaculatory duct

tube through which semen enters the male urethra

urethra

carries urine from bladder out of body; in males, conducts semen out of body

male accessory organs

seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands: all these glands secrete seminal fluid

semen

thick fluid containing sperm and seminal fluids from male reproductive system; aka ejaculate

penis

male organ that transfers sperm into female vagina; carries urine out of body; 3 parts are root, body (shaft), and glans

glans penis

tip, or head, of penis

prepuce

foreskin; loose skin that covers the glans penis; may be removed by circumcision

testosterone

main adrogen, or male sex hormone, secreted by the testicles; stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics (hair, voice, bones, etc)

spermatogenesis

production of sperm

mitosis

cell division; daughter cells contain same number of chromosomes as mother cell: 46

meiosis

sex-cell division; daughter cells contain half the chromosomes as mother cell: 23

sperm anatomy

head: covered by acrosome containing 23 chromosomes
middle piece: mitochondria
tail: flagellum

acrosome

anterior process of sperm; produces enzymes to penetrate the egg; aka acrosomal cap

flagellum

long, whiplike structure that propels a cell forward; in humans,only found in sperm

gonadtropin-releasing hormone

chemical signal released into the blood from hypothalamus; stimulates the release of gonadotropins FSH and LH; aka GnRH

follicle stimulating hormone

chemical signal released into the blood from anterior pituitary; stimulates development of gametes (ovum or sperm); aka FSH

luteinizing hormone

chemical signal released into the blood from anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone production in males; aka LH

female reproductive system functions

1. Produces sex hormones and gametes
2. Protects/supports embryo
3. Nourish infant

pathway of ovum

ovary→uterine tube→uterus→vagina→external genitalia

uterine tube

cilia-lined tube, which transports oocyte from ovary to uterus; where ovum is fertilized; aka oviduct or Fallopian tube

oogenesis

ovum prodcution; begins before birth, accelerates at puberty, ends at menopause

atresia

degeneration of primordial follicles, which contain primary oocytes

oocyte

immature egg cell

ovarian cycle

monthly hormone-induced changes in which ovaries prepare and release an oocyte; divided into follicular phase and luteal phase

follicular phase

phase of ovarian cycle when follicles in the ovary grow and develop oocyte; caused by FSH

luteal phase

phase of the menstrual cycle beginning with ovulation and subsequent corpus luteum formation; ends with end of menstruation; caused by LH

follicle

cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing oocyte cell in an ovary; secrete estrogen

corpus luteum

follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone; "empty follicle"

fetus

embryo from 9 weeks after conception/fertilization until birth

fundus

rounded superior portion of the uterus

cervix

neck-like opening inferior portion of uterus

perimetrium

thin outer tissue layer that covers the surface of the uterus

myometrium

middle, muscle tissue layer of the uterus

endometrium

inner mucous membrane layer that lines inside of uterus; zygote implants here

menses

degeneration of the functional zone (innermost lining) of the endometrium

menstruation

process of endometrial sloughing, lasting 1-7 days

menarche

first uterine cycle

menopause

termination of uterine cycles

amenorrhea

lack of menses; may be primary (never started) or transient (skipped a month of more)

vagina

muscular and vascular mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to exterior of body; eliminates menstrual fluids, receives sperm during intercourse, and forms inferior portion of birth canal

hymen

elastic epithelial fold that partially blocks the vagina

vulva

area containing external genitalia; aka pudendum

vestibule

central space bounded by small folds (labia minora)

clitoris

female sexual organ homologous to the penis

mons pubis

mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic area in women

labia majora

two outer folds of the vulva

lactation

secreting milk to nourish an infant

nipple

on each breast; contains ducts from mammary glands to surface

areola

reddish-brown skin around each nipple

mammary gland

modified sweat glands in female mammals, produce and secrete milk through ducts

lactiferous duct

collects milk from several mammary gland ducts and carries it to nipple

estrogen

female sex hormone; stimulates female secondary characteristics; prepares uterus for fertilization; initiates endometrium repair; maintains pregnancy and milk production

coitus

sexual intercourse or copulation; introduces semen into female reproductive tract

erection

penis stiffened when engorged with blood;

emission

subphase of male orgasm; movement of semen into the urethra ejaculation

ejaculation

rhythmic contractions that cause the expulsion of semen from the urethra

orgasm

intense pleasurable sensations accompanied by strong rhythmic contractions of pelvic floor muscles and reproductive tract organs

detumescence

when erectile tissue subsides after orgasm

impotence

male sexual dysfunction; inability to get or keep an erection

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