GEO 200 Test 1

124 terms by bmessich 

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Which of the following is the most prolific producer of carbon dioxide?

The burning of fossil fuels.

Cooling of air expansion is called ________.

the adiabatic process

The higher latitudes receive much less intense insolation than tropical zones because of ________.

Sun's angle of incidence

Heat transferred laterally in the atmosphere by horizontal wind movements is a process called ________.

advection

The only major country still using the Fahrenheit scale for temperature determination is ________.

U.S.A.

Earth's reradiation to space consists mainly of ________ rays.

longwave

The specific heat of water is greater than that of land. This means

water cools more slowly than does land.

Adiabatic processes cause cooling by ________.

decompression

For the most part the atmosphere is heated directly from the ________.

Earth's surface

A temperature inversion is mainly an inversion of the ________.

normal lapse rate

Solar energy and terrestrial reradiation are usually measured in units of length called ________.

micrometers

The absorption of longwave radiation in the atmosphere is popularly called

the Greenhouse effect.

The process of evaporation of liquid water to vapor releases stored energy called

latent heat.

The observed increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in this century is attributable to

human activities.

Major surface currents are set in motion by

winds

In an inversion, which is true?

The temperature increases with altitude.

In the 20th century, the increased greenhouse effect raised global atmospheric temperatures by

less than 1°C.

The main culprit for global warming appears to be

carbon dioxide.

Where on Earth does one expect the greatest latitudinal displacement of isotherms between January and July?

over the middle latitude continents

The MAIN source of atmosphere heating is from the

reradiation of energy from the Earth.

T/F Visible light comprises a large part of the electromagnetic energy received by Earth.

True

T/F The general circulation of the oceans is a major mechanism for the transfer of energy from the Tropics to the Poles.

True

T/F Latent heat is involved in the process of evaporation.

True

T/F Equatorward-moving currents on the eastern sides of oceanic basins carry cool water toward the equator.

True

T/F Albedo is the same phenomenon as advection.

False

T/F High angle solar energy will traverse a shorter course through the atmosphere than low angle solar energy.

True

T/F Conduction comes about through molecular collision.

True

T/F Solar radiation striking Earth's surface is characterized as "longwave".

False

T/F Coriolis effect sets ocean currents in motion.

False

T/F Ocean gyres rotate clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

True

"Convection" means heat is being transferred ________.

vertically

Kelvin can be converted to degrees Celsius by adding _______ the Celsius reading.

273

A ________ climate is known for lesser seasonal extremes of temperature than its land counterpart.

oceanic

The steady, incoming solar radiation received at the top of the atmosphere is named the ________.

insolation

The distance a ray of sunlight travels through the atmosphere is commonly referred to as the ________.

path length

Describe and explain the Greenhouse Effect.

The greenhouse effect is one of the most important heating processes in the troposphere. The greenhouse effect keeps Earth's surface and lower troposphere much warmer than would be the case of there were no atmosphere. The atmosphere easily allows the short wave energy from the sun in, but greenhouse gases inhibit the escape of long-wave energy and thus warms the earth.

What is the difference between "conduction" and "convection?"

Conduction - the movement of energy from one molecule to another without changing the relative positions of the molecules. Convection - vertical movement of parcels of air due to dinsity differences. In convection, the molecules physically move away from the heat source; in conduction, heat is transferred between two objects when they are in contact.

A counterclockwise atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere is known as a/an ________.

cyclone

A wet monsoon is associated with high rainfall totals and is caused by ________.

a seasonal reversal of winds

Which factor is corrected for on most maps of atmospheric pressure?

altitude

The phenomenon most directly responsible for the seasonally moist climate of northern Australia is

monsoon

Surface westerly winds on a global scale exist because of air flow out of the ________ of the general circulation.

subtropical high pressure

________ are map lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure.

Isobars

Rossby waves are

large undulations in the upper air westerlies.

The so-called "winds of commerce" are the ________ winds.

trade

Rising and falling of air over large areas is most properly known as ________ and ________.

ascent, subsidence

The intertropical convergence zone may be found as far as ________ north of the equator in July.

25°

Wind farms started appearing on the landscape in the ________.

1970s / 1980s

The city of Chicago has a latitude (42°N) within which part of the global circulation?

westerlies

Which of the following is the force that initially causes the wind to blow?

pressure gradient

In a surface anticyclone in the Southern Hemisphere, winds spiral

counterclockwise and outward.

The seasonal shift of the intertropical convergence is greatest ________.

over the continents

This part of the global circulation is characterized by rising air, widespread cloudiness, precipitation, and migratory storms.

subpolar low

A north wind

is blowing to the south.

Speed of the wind is unaffected by

Coriolis effect.

The denser packing of molecules at the bottom of the atmosphere than molecules at the top of the atmosphere is a result of ________.

gravity

El Niño has been noticed for centuries by fishermen in ________.

Chile

T/F The chinook of the Rocky Mountains is the same thing as the foehn wind of the European Alps.

True

T/F The lower layers of the atmosphere are characterized by greater density of its constituent gases.

True

T/F A geostrophic wind results when the pressure gradient force is equaled by the Coriolis effect.

True

T/F The polar front is usually underneath a Rossby wave.

True

T/F Jet streams are the fastest portions of the atmosphere's general circulation.

True

T/F In the upper troposphere over the middle latitudes, winds are generally westerly.

True

T/F Subtropical high pressure systems are associated with storm formation.

False

T/F A barometer measures pressure.

True

T/F Coriolis effect deflects wind to the left of its original direction of motion in the Southern Hemisphere.

True

T/F The "friction layer" extends to approximately 1,000 meters above the ground.

True

FIB In an upper air cyclone of the Southern Hemisphere, there is a ________ flow paralleling the isobars.

clockwise

FIB ________ are semipermanent areas of high pressure centered over oceans.

subtropical highs

FIB In the Northern Hemisphere, ________ is the direction for which of the trade winds are named.

northeast

FIB The origin of monsoons is not fully understood but is believed to be related to ________.

jet stream

FIB The chinook is the American equivalent of the European wind known as the ________.

foehn

Explain the process of the land-sea breeze cycle.

Diurnal cycle where the land heats up faster during the day and creates a low pressure system and the breeze flow is from the ocean to the land - it is just the opposite at night.

What generally happens to atmospheric pressure with increasing altitude?

It decreases. Air is less dense at higher altitudes, meaning there are less molecular collisions. The temperature of the air at higher altitudes is cooler. This means that the molecules are moving slower and result in fewer collisions. Rising air is also associated with low pressure at the surface.

Water vapor is nearly absent ________.

in the upper reaches of the atmosphere

A variable gas in the atmosphere nearly absent from the higher elevations is ________.

water vapor

Which of the following statements about the atmosphere is TRUE?

Most of its mass is relatively close to the ground.

The approximate outer boundary of the atmosphere extends outward at least ________ kilometers above the surface.

10,000

The segment of the atmosphere which blends into interplanetary space is called the ________.

exosphere

The warm zone near the top of the stratosphere is the result of heating from

the absorption of solar energy.

It is really improper to discuss or classify climate with any record less than ________.

several decades

Given land/water heating contrasts, one would expect to find the coldest winter temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere

in Siberia (70°N).

Compared to other substances in the Earth system, air is considered ________ conductor of energy.

a very poor

Methane is one of the "greenhouse gases". ________ is(are) a primary source of release of methane into the atmosphere.

Grazing animals

As the angle of incidence becomes less, the

less concentrated solar energy becomes.

On the average, sunlight received on the Earth's surface is only ________ as strong as that received at the edge of the atmosphere.

1/2

Where are seasonal changes in day length least important?

tropical latitudes

Which of the below takes place in cycles much longer than the time taken by an El Niño event?

PDO

Cold winds pouring downhill because of gravity are called ________.

katabatic winds

At any given time, there are usually ________ Rossby waves in the westerly winds of each hemisphere.

3-6

The angle of the wind flow across the isobars ________.

becomes smaller with height

Above the influence of friction, most winds follow a ________ course.

geostrophic

City A has an air pressure of 1,000 millibars. City B has an air pressure of 1004 millibars. The distance between the two cities is 100 kilometers. The difference of 4 millibars over 100 kilometers is known as

the pressure gradient.

You are standing on a shoreline with the ocean to your west. The wind is traveling from west to east. The wind would be called

onshore

The phenomenon most directly responsible for the seasonally moist climate of northern Australia is

monsoon

Cyclones, in the Northern Hemisphere, are ________ air flows.

counterclockwise

T/F Most water vapor is contained in the lower ten kilometers of the atmosphere.

True

T/F The coldest atmospheric temperatures are attained in the troposphere.

False

T/F The troposphere is an atmospheric layer with a uniform depth in all places around the globe.

False

T/F Precipitation is an unlikely occurrence during an inversion.

True

T/F High angle solar energy will traverse a shorter course through the atmosphere than low angle solar energy.

True

T/F The transparency and transmissivity of the atmosphere is uniform over the globe.

False

T/F The vertical distribution of temperature in the troposphere is essentially unchanging in the troposphere.

False

T/F Equatorward-moving currents on the eastern sides of oceanic basins carry cool water toward the equator.

True

T/F The specific heat of land is about five times that of water.

False

T/F In the upper troposphere over the middle latitudes, winds are generally westerly.

True

T/F There are two jet streams in the world, one in the northern and one in the southern hemisphere.

False

T/F The subtropical high-pressure zones are mainly continuous over continents in the summer.

False

T/F The subtropical high pressure zones tend to be centered over land in both June and January.

False

T/F The atmospheric pressure is force per area exerted by air.

False

T/F The "friction layer" contains geostrophic winds.

False

FIB The international treaty that bans the use of chlorofluorocarbons is the _______. (2 words)

Montreal Protocol

FIB ________ is a substance significant to the atmosphere in that it is needed to make clouds and is intimately involved in the place-to-place transfer of energy.(2 words)

Water vapor

FIB The atmospheric content of ________ has been increasing for the last century.(2 words)

Carbon Dioxide

FIB On long, cold winter nights with clear, calm skies, a ________ inversion of temperature will occur.

radiation

FIB The ________ is the season in which the northern and southern hemispheres have their long-term (average) isotherms packed most closely together on maps.

Winter

FIB A ________ thermometer is a specialized type of thermometer which has a small index made of a glass filament or wire placed in the column of alcohol.

minimum

FIB The two enormous "convective" circulations of the Tropics are known as the ________ (2 words).

Hadley cells

FIB The ________ is the part of the global circulation with an average position near the Equator.

ITC

FIB In the trade wind portion of the Northern Hemisphere, the wind in the upper troposphere blows from the ________ while the surface winds are blowing from the northeast.

southwest

FIB ________ refers to a seasonal reversal of winds and is derived from an Arabic term.

Monsoon

There are four (4) very important measureable variables that are known as the "elements of weather and climate," - what are they?

(1) temperature, (2) moisture content, (3) pressure, and (4) wind.

What is a temperature inversion?

A temperature inversion is a situation in which temperature in the troposphere increases, rather than decreases, with increasing altitude. They can occur at the surface or at higher levels - most common are surface inversions at ground level resulting from radiational cooling - can also be advectional inversions, in which there is a horizontal inflow of cold air into an area.

Describe and explain the seasonal shifts of the general circulation patterns; especially note the significance of the seasonal shifts of the ITCZ and the subtropical highs.

When sunlight, and therefore surface heating, is concentrated in the Northern Hemisphere all suface compoinents are displaced northward; during the opposite season, everything is shifted southward. The displacement is greatest in the low latitudes and least in the polar regions. The ITCZ can be found as much as 25o north of the equator in July and 20o south of the equator in January.

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