Chapter 1 The Earth as A Rotating Planet

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geographic grid

network of parallels and meridians used to fix location

parallel

east-west circle on the Earth's surface, lying in a place parallel to the equator

equator

parallel that lies midway between the two poles (latitude)

meridian

north-south line on the Earth's surface, connecting the poles (longitude)

prime meridian

reference meridian which has a longitude of 0 degrees

mercator projection

the meridians form a rectangular grid of straight vertical lines, while the parallels form straight horizontal lines

the goode projection

equal area map often used to display information such as climate or soil type (indicates the true sizes of regions on the Earth's surface)

polar projection

map projection centered on either the North or South pole

standard time

time system based on the local time of a standard meridian and applied to the belts of longitude extending roughly 7.5 on either side of that meridian

International Date Line

west side of the 180th meridian; point at which it becomes a new day

perihelion

the point in orbit in which Earth is closest to the sun (on or around January 3rd)

aphelion

Earth is farthest from the sun (around July 4th)

plane of the ecliptic

place containing the Earth's orbit around the sun

winter (december) solstice

the subsolar point is at 23.5 degrees south--Tropic of Capricorn (southern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun)

summer (june) solstice

the subsolar point is at 23.5 degrees north--Tropic of Cancer(northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun)

equinox

instant in time when the subsolar point falls on the Earth's equator and the circle of illumination passes through both poles

circle of illumination

circle that separates the day hemisphere from the night hemisphere

subsolar point

single point on Earth's surface where the sun is directly overhead at a particular moment

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