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For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in

distributed practice.

To aid students in their retention of information, which subsequently enables them to earn higher exam scores, memory researchers would highlight the use of

elaborative rehearsal.

The fading of memory with the passage of time marks decay and which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?

Transience

Lamont is walking through his local health and nutrition store. An employee comes up and asks if he needs any assistance. Lamont asks what is the most effective and cheapest memory enhancing herbal remedy they have. If the employee answers this question based on the evidence from controlled, scientific research, he or she would recommend

any sugary liquid.

Although both Clive Wearing and a patient known as H.M. had severely damaged hippocampi or removed hippocampi, they both showed evidence of

implicit memory.

Knowing how to navigate the route from one's residence hall room to the location of one's college algebra class is an example of a

schema.

Which of these age groups has the strongest memory abilities?

young adults

According to the authors, our memory is most like

melting wax

False memories are easier to implant when the events that are said to have occurred are perceived as

plausible.

Leola has a comprehensive final for her organic chemistry class. For her to be able to retain the information from early in the semester, she should be advised to use ________ in her studying throughout the term.

distributed practice

The inability to momentarily remember a person's name, which you indeed know quite well, is an example of which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?

Blocking

The most important factor in the majority of the cases, more than 75 percent, where DNA evidence led to the overturning of a unjust conviction of an innocent person was

faulty eyewitness identification.

With regard to the idea of patients' memories being shaped by suggestive psychotherapy techniques, psychologists

re sharply divided about whether such memories are real or false memories.

As Dominique reviews the vocabulary terms for her French class, she is most likely to experience the greatest degree of forgetting

immediately after learning new words.

An important criticism of the depth-of-processing model is that it is

unfalsifiable.

An important source of false memories comes from

source monitoring confusion.

Mnemonics will be most helpful as encoding devices if we

practice them on a regular basis.

The inability to momentarily remember a person's name, which you indeed know quite well, is an example of which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?

Blocking

Darryl decides to start reviewing for his exam by studying 20 minutes a day for 10 days rather than just studying 3-4 hours the night before his exam. He is making use of

distributed practice.

What point did the authors make regarding claims of recovered memories of childhood abuse?

Childhood abuse claims need to be supported by supporting evidence in order to be believed as real.

For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in

distributed practice

Knowing how to navigate the route from one's residence hall room to the location of one's college algebra class is an example of a

schema

During lecture each day, a psychology professor may explain four main points he or she wishes the class to retain. However, most students do not think about the material again until the following class period two days later. The forgetting that occurs between classes is most likely the result of

decay

The fading of memory with the passage of time marks decay and which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?

Transience

All night, Pedro has been staring at Samantha from across the dance floor. At the end of the night, he finally gets the courage to ask her for her telephone number. His mental repetition of the number on the drive home is one example of

rehearsal.

According to the research on the primacy effect, if your father read you a list of 10 items to pick up at the hardware store you would most easily recall those items

from early in the list.

Although both Clive Wearing and a patient known as H.M. had severely damaged hippocampi or removed hippocampi, they both showed evidence of

implicit memory.

Memory recovery from amnesia is

gradual, if at all.

In answering this, and all other questions for this exam, you are making use of

retrieval

When one attempts to recreate a retrieval environment that is as similar as possible to the initial encoding, or learning, environment as possible, he or she is making use of the principle of

encoding specifity

memory

retention of information over time

suggestive memory techniques

procedures that encourage patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place

memory illusion

false but subjectively compelling memory

span

how much information a memory system can retain

duration

length of time for which a memory system can retain information

sensory memory

brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short term memory

iconic memory

visual sensory memory

echoic memory

auditory sensory memory

short-term memory

memory system that retains information for limited durations

decay

fading of information from memory

interference

loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information

retroactive inhibition

interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information

proactive inhibition

interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of new information

magic number

the span of short-term memory, according to george miller; seven plus or minus two pieces of information

chunking

organizing information into meaningful groupings, allows us to extend the span of short-term memory

rehearsal

repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term memory

maintenance rehearsal

repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short term memory

elaborative rehearsal

linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory

levels of processing

depth of transforming information, which influences how easily we remember it

long term memory

sustained (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills

permastore

type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent

primary effect

tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well

recency effect

tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well

von restorff effect

tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli

serial position curve

graph depicting the effect of both primacy and recency on people's ability to recall items on a list.

semantic memory

our knowledge of facts about the world

episodic memory

recollection of events in our lives

explicit memory

memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness

implicit memory

memories we dont deliberately remember or reflect o consciously

procedural memory

memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits

priming

our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encountered similar stimuli

Three stages of memory;

1)encoding 2)storage 3)retrieval

encoding

process of getting information into our memory banks

mnemonic

a learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall

storage

process of keeping information in memory

schema

organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in memory

retrieval

reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores

retrieval cues

hints that make it easier for us to recall information

recall

generating previously remembered information

recognition

selecting previously remembered information from an array of options

relearning

reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten over time.

distributed vs. massed practice

studying information in small increments over time (distributed) versus in large increments over a brief amount of time (massed)

tip of the tongue phenomenon

experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it

encoding specificity

phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it

context-dependent learning

superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context

state-dependent learning

superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding

long term potentiation

gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation

amygdala

emotional component of memories

hippocampus

factual component of memories

retrograde amnesia

loss of memories from our past

anterograde amnesia

inability to encode new memories from our experiences

meta memory

knowledge about our own memory abilities and limitations

infantile amnesia

inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age

flashbulb memories

emotional memories that are extraordinary vivid and detailed

source monitoring

ability to identify the origins of a memory

cryptomnesia

failure to recognize our ideas originated with someone else

misinformation effect

creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place

seven sins of memory

suggestibility, misattribution, bias, transcience, persistence, blocking, and absentmindedness

The most sensitive measure of memory is

relearning.

For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in

distributed practice

The first day of class, Sheila asked her professor what was the best way to learn and remember the material for the course. The professor responded, "Focus on identifying and understanding the meaning of the important terms and concepts." The instructor is advocating a ________ level of processing.

semantic

Jermaine sees a car accident and he initially estimates the offending driver to be traveling at 39 miles per hour. However, after hearing another witness's report of the cars "bumping" and answering a police officer's questions about the rate of speed when the cars "contacted," he subsequently revises his estimate to 30 miles per hour and his memory of the accident changes. This is an example of

he misinformation effect.

Evidence suggests that when the real criminal is NOT included in a "live" line-up, most witnesses

will be inaccurate and select the person who most closely resembles the real criminal.

During new worker orientation, you wish to make a good impression by being able to recall everyone's name. Research on encoding would suggest that you are most likely to forget the name of

the person immediately before you.

According to the research on the primacy effect, if your father read you a list of 10 items to pick up at the hardware store you would most easily recall those items

from early in the list

When listening to the radio, Ramona hears a song; she cannot immediately recall the band's name, but she is sure she knows the name. This is one example of

he tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

In the text, the authors discussed the astounding memory capabilities of Rajan. He could recall the digits for the number pi starting from nearly any place in the sequence. His amazing ability is due, in part, to his use of

chunking

In high school, Deanna took three years of Spanish. Upon enrolling in college ten years later, she registered for a remedial French course. When required to speak in French during class discussion with her teacher and classmates, Deanna frequently responds with Spanish words instead of French words. This is one example of

proactive inhibition

An essay exam question or a fill-in-the-blank question with no word bank is similar to the ________ method of assessing one's memory.

recall

Which of the following forms of memory requires conscious attention for encoding, storage, and retrieval?

episodic memory

Memory recovery from amnesia is

gradual, if at all.

Unlike explicit memory, implicit memory

nvolves no deliberate attention or effort.

A recognition memory task is often easier than a recall memory task because

we only have to eliminate the incorrect options to get the correct answer.

Jasmine needs to remember an 8-line poem for her 5th-grade English class next week. Her mother suggests that she link the first few words from each line with a different part of their home, starting with the front door. This suggestion is most similar to the memory strategy known as

the method of loci.

The most important factor in the majority of the cases, more than 75 percent, where DNA evidence led to the overturning of a unjust conviction of an innocent person was

faulty eyewitness identification.

A group of 3- to 6-year-old children were told about a man named "Sam Stone." For several weeks "Sam" was described to them as being clumsy. Upon his visit, he did nothing to confirm this stereotype. How did this impact the children's memory?

Over half the children, regardless of age, responded to these suggestions while lower percentages also reported that Sam soiled a bear and tore a book.

A key theme that has emerged from the memory research literature is that

active reconstruction of events alters our memory of the important and unimportant events of our lives.

Which of the following forms of memory requires conscious attention for encoding, storage, and retrieval?

episodic memory

In answering this, and all other questions for this exam, you are making use of

retrieval

Eyewitness testimony has been found to be most accurate when

the witness has ample time to observe the person under good viewing conditions

If people today were shown a picture that contain stereotypic-inconsistent information, such as that of the black man being accosted by a white man with a razor, we would expect most of them to

recall stereotypic-consistent, not inconsistent, information when questioned later.

When asked to recall single-digit numbers presented in various digit span sizes, the typical adult starts to encounter difficulty once they get past approximately ________ digits.

5

According to the authors, most of the events we experience

are never encoded and thus never stored in long-term memory.

Roseanne claims that she can remember instances of childhood sexual abuse that started at 6 months of age. Why are most psychologists likely to be skeptical of this and other such claims?

Because infantile amnesia makes it unlikely that these are true memories from that age

As an adult and a parent of a 4-year-old child, Camille has seen many children begin to cry when placed on the lap of the mall Santa or Easter Bunny. When discussing this with her brother, Luis, he reminds her of the time when she was 5 that she began crying hysterically, ran fromf Santa's lap, and was lost for nearly two hours. Luis has made all of this up, but Camille has a clear and distinct memory of the event he described. This demonstrates the role of ________ in producing false memories.

plausible events

As we age, our ability to recognize the strengths and limitations of our own memories improves. This is known as

meta memory

Lamont is walking through his local health and nutrition store. An employee comes up and asks if he needs any assistance. Lamont asks what is the most effective and cheapest memory enhancing herbal remedy they have. If the employee answers this question based on the evidence from controlled, scientific research, he or she would recommend

any sugary liquid

Just before taking your French I exam you were reviewing 5 terms that you had missed on the last vocabulary test. When you get to your exam, you find that you have an easy time answering several questions because they are related terms you just studied. This is an example of the

recency effect

When information that you learned in your high school psychology class gets in the way of learning new information from your college-level psychology class, ________ has occurred.

interference

Seth is using visualization to imagine himself throwing pitches for strikes when he plays baseball. The ability to recognize that he is constructing these images rather than recalling them from an actual game in which he played results from accurate

source monitoring

Dr. Vargas can remember hundreds of students' names from his twenty-five years of university teaching, but has difficulty remembering the new three digit area code for his home phone number. This is one illustration of

the paradox of memory

ideki and Thao are reviewing for an exam. Thao asks the following question: "What term refers to how people use information from the past in the present?" Hideki would be most correct if he answered

memory

Emilio is seeing a sports psychologist to help improve his mental preparation and performance. The psychologist asks Emilio to see himself making his free throws. As Emilio visualizes his dribbling, shooting motion, and release, he sees himself as an outside observer would. Memory researchers argue this demonstrates

the reconstructive nature of memory

Schemas can lead to memory errors through the confirmation bias and stereotyping because we

fail to consider how an individual differs in important ways from a group stereotype.

Researchers have attempted to implant false memories in the memories of students at Gotham State University. To be certain that the event never occurred, they asked students if they recall getting to meet Yosemite Sam (a Warner Brothers character) at Disneyland. When approximately 41% of the students reported this memory, the researchers knew it was indeed evidence of a false memory because

the memory was of an impossible event

chemas and scripts are valuable memory tools because they

ssist us in interpreting new and unfamiliar situations.

The misinformation effect is most similar to which example below from the "Seven Sins of Memory"?

suggestibility

Gingko, or any other memory booster, works by increasing the amount of ________ in the human brain.

acetylcholine

Schemas can lead to memory errors through the confirmation bias and stereotyping because we

fail to consider how an individual differs in important ways from a group stereotype.

Research on flashbulb memories indicates

they are largely susceptible to the same errors as other types of memory

After presenting groups of research participants words like thread, eye, pin, syringe, sewing, sharp, and thimble, a memory researcher asks the participants whether they remember seeing the word needle. The fact that many participants do is an example of

memory illusion

Exposing people to stereotype-consistent information before meeting with an individual from the stereotyped group is often sufficient to produce stereotypic interpretations of that person's actions and thoughts. This is an example of

priming.

In his research on long-term memory, psychologist Harry Bahrick found that memory declined

markedly for about two years, but only gradually thereafter.

when one attempts to recreate a retrieval environment that is as similar as possible to the initial encoding, or learning, environment as possible, he or she is making use of the principle of

encoding specificity.

If people today were shown a picture that contain stereotypic-inconsistent information, such as that of the black man being accosted by a white man with a razor, we would expect most of them to

look for other examples of stereotypic-inconsistent information in their social world.

During which of Piaget's stages does a child demonstrate the ability reason about abstract ideas and novel information?

Formal operational

Which of the following is an example of imprinting?

Young geese demonstrate an attachment to a round ball

At five years old, Sammy is better able to understand his friends' feelings as compared to when he was three years old. Sammy is acquiring a

theory of mind

One's accumulated knowledge gained over time is called

crystallized intelligence

Which research method is most suitable for studying factors that influence behavioral change over time?

longitudinal

Elementary school teachers from China would likely employ a(n)________ style of teaching

authoritarian

During menarche teenagers experience

menstruation

Piaget overestimated the degree to which

object permanence develops in children.

According to Kohlberg, behavior motivated by the avoidance of punishment represents ________ morality.

preconventional

Responses to moral dilemmas are only moderately correlated with actual behavior. Which of the following may be seen to increase the strength of correlations between hypothetical responses and actual behavior?

Posing dilemmas focused on realistic situations that are likely to be faced on a regular basis

Jean Piaget is best known for his pioneering work in the area of ________ development.

cognitive

Miss Johnson gave Mark and Tia equal sized lumps of clay. Tia immediately rolled hers into a long shape. Mark cried and complained that Tia had received more clay. Mark's behavior represents

an inability to conserve

Children involved in "Strange Situation" research change attachment styles frequently in follow-up studies, meaning that this method of measuring attachment style lacks

reliability

Which of the following represents cross-cultural differences in attachment study research?

More infants from Japan fall into the insecure-anxious catergory as compared to U.S. infants.

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