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neurology

medical specialty of disorders of the nervous system

neurologist

specialist of disorders of the nervous system

parasympathetic

division of autonomic nervous system; calms body - slows heartbeat but stimulates digestion

sympathetic division

arouses body for action by increasing heart rate and respiratory rate to increase oxygen supply to brain and muscles

nerve

a cord of fibers bound together with connective tissues

neuron

nerve cell ( cell body, dendrites, axons)

myelin

material of the sheath around the axon of a nerve

synapse

junction between two nerve cells, or a nerve fiber and its target cell where electricacl impulses are transmitted between cells

neurotransmitter

chemical agent that relays messages from one nerve cell to the next

cerebellum

the most posterior area of the brain located between the midbrain and cerebral hemispheres; motor control

cerebrum

cerebral hemispheres

frontal lobe

front area of cereral hemisphere; responsible for intellect, planning, problem solving and voluntary motor control of muscles

parietal lobe

posterior to frontal lobe; recieves and interprets sensory info - like spoken words

temporal lobe

below frontal and parietal lobes; intereprets sensory experiences

occipital lobe

posterior part of cerebral hemisphere interprets visual images and written words

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid formed in the ventricles of the brain and surrounds the brain and spinal cord

thalamus

mass of gray matter under the ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere ; receives all sensory impulses and channels them to different regions for interpretation

hypothalamus

an endocrine gland in the floor and wall of third ventricle in the brain - regulates blood pressure, body temp, h2o and electrolyte balance

meninges

three layered covering of brain and spinal cord...

alzheimers disease

most common form of dementia - nerve cells in areas of the brain associated with memory and cognition are replaced by clumps and tangles...

vascular dementia

second common form of dementia arteries to brain narrow causing 02 deprivation

epilepsy

chronic brain disorder due to paroxysmal excessive neuronal discharges

tourette syndrome

disorder of multiple motor and vocal tics

narcolepsy

involuntary falling asleep

stroke

acute clinical event caused by impaired cerebral circulation

syncope

temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone due to diminished cerebral blood flow

migraines

severe headache confined to one side of the head

encephalitis

inflammation of brain cells and tissues

aneurysm

small circumscribed dilation of an artery or cardiac chamber

coup

injury to the brain directly under the skull at the point of contact

contussion

hemorrhage into a tissue (bruising) including the brain

concussion

mild brain injury

menengitis

inflammation of the meninges

fibromyalgia

pain in the muscle fibers

demyelination

process of losing the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber

multiple sclerosis

myelin sheaths around axon of brain and spinal cord are damaged

herniated disc

tear in ring allows soft central portion to bulge out

poliomyelitis

inflammation of gray matter of the spinal cord leading to paralysis of limbs and muscles of respiratory

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

motor neuron disease

spina bifida

failure of one or more vertebral arches to close during fetal development

spina bifida cystica

meninges and spinal cord protruding through the absent vertebral arch

cerebral palsy

motor impairment resulting from brain damage in an infant or young child

ataxic

poor sense of balance and coordination

athetoid

limbs involuntarily writhe and move

spastic

muscles are tight and resistant to stretch

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