Chapter 7 Study Guide

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64 terms · Questions and answers

ATP

is known as the energy currency of a cell

carbohydrates

The main source of energy for humans is:

glucose

Which of the following has the most energy? cAMP, ADP, ATP, glucose, NADPH

sun

The ultimate source of energy for living things is the:

glycolysis or respiration

When molecules are broken apart in _________ the energy released in respiration is channeled into molecules of ATP.

glycolysis

results in the production of pyruvate

NAD+

Glycolysis depends on a continuous supply of

glucose

Before a ____ molecule can be broken down to release energy, two phosphate groups must be attached to ____.

ETP- electron transport phosphorylation

The greatest number of ATP molecules is produced in:

glycolysis, Krebs, ETP

Put the following processes in the correct operational sequence:

citrate

The first intermediate molecule produced in the Krebs cycle is:

twice

To break down a glucose molecule completely requires how many passes through the Krebs cycle?

carbon dioxide, energy, and hydrogen

The breakdown of pyruvate in the Krebs cycle results in the release of:

matrix (mitochondrion)

The Krebs cycle takes place in the:

NAD+

____ is capable of being reduced during both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.

oxygen

The energy used to generate most of the ATP formed in aerobic respiration is released when electrons ultimately are passed from NADH to what molecule?

water

Which of the following is NOT ordinarily capable of being reduced at any time? NAD+, FAD, oxygen (O2), water

oxygen

The ultimate electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is:

hydrogen

During electron transport phosphorylation, which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria?

Lactate

____production in muscle cells is temporary, and due to oxygen deficiency.

mountain streams

You can find anaerobic bacteria in all of the following places, EXCEPT: the guts of farm animals, swamps, mountain streams, sediments of lakes and oceans, sealed canned goods

anaerobic

Fermentation may occur in a muscle under ______ conditions.

lactate, ethanol, carbon dioxide

If fermentation follows glycolysis, the two NADH molecules produced during glycolysis will (depending on the organism) be used to reduce pyruvate into either _____or _____and____.

urea

____is the waste product of amino acid metabolism.

glycolysis

_____ is the process that splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules.

ETP

___uses a membrane-bound system that contains cytochromes to produce ATP.

Krebs

The____ cycle produces ATP, NADH, and CO2.

Fermentation

______ regenerates NAD+ as pyruvate is converted to ethanol or lactate.

Acetyl-CoA

____ formation produces NADH and CO2; changes pyruvate.

aerobic respiration

This process yields the most energy

lactate fermentation

This process yields a final product called lactate

alcoholic fermentation

This process yields two molecules of ATP and the final product ethanol

glycolysis

This process precedes the Krebs cycle

aerorobic respiration

This process involves electron transport phosphorylation

oxygen

Aerobes use ____ as the final electron acceptor in ETP.

hydrogen

The amount of energy released from glucose molecule is dependent on what happens to ______ atoms?

aerobic

____ respiration liberates the most energy in the form of ATP.

ATP

___can be produced by photosynthesis; is produced in the degradation of organic compounds such as glucose; is generated in anaerobic respiration; is released in aerobic respiration.

glycolysis

Pyruvate can be regarded as the end product of ____

PGAL

In the breakdown of glucose, the compound formed after two phosphorylation reactions is split into two 3-carbon compounds. The 3-carbon compound is named__.

phosphorylation

The conversion of PGAL to pyruvate involves substrate-level_____

two

H0ow many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis?

pyruvate

The end product(s) of glycolysis is (are):

SLP

What is the name of the process by which reduced NAD+ transfers electrons to oxygen?

ETP

When glucose is used as the energy source, the largest amount of ATP is produced in:

Acetyl-CoA

___formation is a transition from glycolysis to the Krebs cycle.

Krebs

During which phase of aerobic respiration is ATP produced directly by substrate-level phosphorylation?

oxaloacetate

The last intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle is:

lactate

Sour cream and sour milk are produced by bacteria that form:

lactate

Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells produce:

sulfate

The bacteria that live in hot springs use ___ as their final hydrogen acceptor.

fermentation, glycolysis

The first forms of life that produced ATP probably used pathways similar to _____&_____.

Chemiosmotic Theory

The generation of concentration gradients across the membranes of mitochondria is known as which theory of ATP production?

Krebs

When proteins and fats are used as energy sources, their breakdown subunits enter the ____ cycle.

glycogen

WHen blood glucose levels decrease (as between meals) what reserves are tapped?

glycolysis, Krebs

Molecules associated with ____and the _____ cycle provide sources of energy for ATP formation, and intermediates in the formation of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

2%

In glycolysis, approximately what percent of the toltal energy in glucose is released?

False

When ATP concentration declines, enzymatic activity that produces ATP declines.

ATP

Which is not a hydrogen acceptor: oxygen, cytochrome, ATP, NAD+, FAD

lactate

This compound is the end product of anaerobic respiration exercising muscle.

pyruvate

This compound is the end product of glycolysis

acetaldehyde

This compound is an intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation, but not lactate fermentation

lactate

This compound is the most likely end product of a human runner experiencing an oxygen debt.

ethanol

This compound is utilized in alcoholic fermentaiton and lactate fermentation

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