A vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds
What are the risk factors for Hemmorhagic stroke?
Hypertension, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)
Deficiency in blood supply
What are the two types of ischemic strokes?
Thrombotic and embolic
Ischemic stroke (thrombotic)
Ischemic stroke (embolic)
A substance in the bloodstream that becomes lodged in a small vessel
What are the risk factors for ischemic stroke? (Name five)
Cerebrovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, and clotting disorders.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Tiny particles of atherosclerotic plaque or tiny blood clots that travel to the brain (emboli); or Vascular spasm
What are the risk factors for TIAs? (Name five)
Cerebrovascular disease, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, hypertension, clotting disorders
Caused by a virus, usually arboviruses (viruses carried by insects); and some types of fungi and protozoans
Usually viral (better prognosis) or bacterial (worse than viral); can also be caused by fungi, amoebas, or chemical irritation . Some types may be contagious and any be transmitted via large-droplet respiratory oral secretions by coughing or kissing.
Infection from a variety of sources and locations, ex. - local sources include infected head injuries and head surgery sites; infections in the ears, sinuses and teeth. More distant sources include infections within lungs, heart and kidneys.
Causative organism is usually streptococcus, but can also be caused by other bacteria, fungi, and even parasites.
Fungi or bacteria enter the brain tissue through the bloodstream, local inflammation brings WBCs, they collect along with dead microorganisms and debris, and the ________ __________ grows.
A virus that enters through the nose and/or mouth, multiplies in the intestines, absorbed through the intestinal wall into the bloodstream and travels to the CNS. Spread through direct contact with infected person or contact with respiratory secretions or feces.
Exact cause not understood. In 60% of cases a viral infection precedes the disorder by 2-4 weeks, but the connection is not clear.
Dopamine deficiency; dopamine is a type if neurotransmitter (chemical released by an axon terminal - end of a neuron - to inhibit or excite a target cell). Dopamine is critical to nerve impulse transmission.
Thought to be autoimmune response, inflammation and degeneration of myelin sheath, repeated episodic disruption of nerve-impulse conduction. Triggers include infections, viruses, pregnancy.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
90% unknown etiology, hereditary cause in 10% of cases
Contributors: advanced age, genetics, some viruses, previous brain injuries, cardiovascular disease, vitamin b12 or folate deficiency, brain infection, diabetes
Cerebral concussion and contusion
Spinal cord injury
Traumatic or violent injury
Subdural and Epidural hematomas
Tearing of blood vessels, high-velocity rotational or linear force, it expands for 6-8 hours, strips away the dura. Risk factors: age, alcohol abuse, anticoagulant medication
Can be Congenital (born with it), but usually caused by degenerative changes, osteoarthritis, disk herniation, ligament changes, vertebral misalignment, spinal tumors, traumatic injuries, bone-tissue formation disorders
Caused by compression of lumbar nerve roots or spinal cord (herniated discs, tumors, spinal stenosis, piriformis syndrome), pelvic injury, acute trigger points, uterine compression
Not fully understood but does show a familial connection. Theories include trigeminal nerve involvement, imbalances in neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin), vascular dilation and inflammation
Muscle tension in scalp, neck, jaw, or upper shoulders. Contributors: poor posture, lack of sleep, alcohol use, missed meals, noise.
Exact cause unknown. Associated with: diabetes, alcoholism, AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ingestion of toxic substances and some drugs, nerve injury from prolonged immobility or compression
Inflammation of the seventh cranial nerve, possible viral infection may be triggering event; but exact underlying cause unknown
Exact cause unknown. Many cases attributed to trigeminal nerve root compression by blood vessels or lesions, resulting in hyperactive function of of the nerve. Sometimes connected to nerve injury or MS. Pain triggers: chewing, shaving, applying makeup, talking, drinking, brushing teeth, smiling, touching the face, feeling a cool breeze.
Can be congenital or acquired. Triggers: withdrawal from anti seizure medication, head trauma, illness, emotional or physical stress, fatigue, specific foods or chemicals, flickering or flashing lights.
Transient global amnesia
Exact cause unknown. Theory includes temporary circulation disruption to parts of the brain. Triggers include: cold-water immersion, severe emotional or physical stress, sexual activity, recent migraine headache, medical procedures