Humanities CLEP (visual arts & architecture)

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REA's College Level Exam Program (CLEP) This is the visual arts and architecture portion ONLY.

Classical Period

9th century B.C. and earlier.

Archaic Period

9th-8th centuries B.C. Greek art: vase paintings, geometric styles. zigzag, meandering and triangular designs; lively animal and human silhouettes by 6th C.

Helenistic Period

4th C. more genre subjects, and Romans built temples, roads, bath complexes, civic buildings, palaces, and aquaducts.

Byzantine style

about mid 6th C. (domes & arches) Meant to convey a supernatural, otherworldly efect. Hagia Sophia by Isidorus and Athemius.

Dark Ages

5th-8th C. Celtic Ireland, Scotland and northern Brittain: stone carvings and crosses.

Romanesque style

1st Century. art and architecture (shown in picture) was dominant in the western world in the eleventh and twelfth centuries and was characterized by a renewed interest in Roman construction forms, such as round arches, barrel vaults, and groin and supporting vaults. (picture snow white's castle with the well out front)

Gothic

12th-15th C. A French and Northern European style; very verticcal. Flying butttresss, pointed arches and vaults, decorated profusely with sculptures and stained glass.

Proto-Renaissance

13th &14th C. A classical style, humanism, naturalism. More festive, colorful and realistic. (this style is painting only)

Renaissance

1250 to 17th Century. Emphasis on wall decoration in fresco and painting of alterpieces. captures the moment before movement

Greco-Roman

15th C. scientific, ordered approach; perspective.

neoclassicism

18th & 19th C. Palladian/classical "revival" in architecture. Picture the White House.

Rococo

18th C. Decorative wall and ceiling schemes; turned the agitated drama of to light, pastel-toned, swirling compositions. Idylic. architecture: shells, scrolls, &leaves with stucco.

Baroque

17th through early 18th C. Great drama, rich, deep colors, & intense light & dark shadows. shows movement at its most dramatic point. Group portraits. Architecture: domes, roman pillars & rounded arches.

Neoclassicism

17th-19th C. Palladian/Classical style- Baroque energy, classical elements, and a touch of gothic.

Victorian

19th C. "Gothic Revival" or "Neo-Gothic"
Painting- everyday life & landscapes.

Impressionism

19th C. Emphasized quickly observed and sketched landscapes & everyday life. (blotchy appearance)

Postimpressionism

19th C. flat images inspired by Japanese Prints, emphasizing geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour. less blotchy.

pointillism

19th C. Allows the viewer to visually mix the colors of a painting that had been applied in minute individual dots.

Cubism

20th C. was the most revolutionary and far-reaching art movement fo the centrury. (nonsensical geometric shapes.)

kinetic art

20th C. moves or has illusion of movement.

Op art

20th C. Manipulation of abstract color and repetative patterns to play tricks on the eyes.

fauvism

20th C. like impressionism but with unreal use of color -french for "the wild beasts".

Art Noveau

19th C. the decorative details of interior design.

postmodernism

20th C. modernism, with humanistically decorative elements.

pop art

20th C. early comic book style.

photomosaic

20th C. a picture made up of pictures.

Mannerists

16th C. Exagerations: floating angels, the confusion of illusion and reality,contorted and elogated figures, awkward spatial relationships, and strange lighting effects.

Nabis

19th C. distorted reality and pursued sinewy forms or abstract patterning.

die burke

20th C. meant to shock: contorted figures, screaming color, and outrageous themes.

Dada artists

20th C. assembled any materials available. "found objects"

greater naturalism

a wider variety fo poses and emotional display, and the intricate play of drapery.

tempera paintings

led to natrualistic representation of human figures.

terracotta

clay used in the construction of ancient buildings, figurines, and pottery.

sfumato

a smoky-shodowy way of modeling form

Neoplatonic philosophy

the body expresses the spirit. (Renaissance)

panels

pre-easels.

Trompe L'oeil

Roman technique to fool the eye into thinking a picture is 3D.

Tempietto

1st Renaissance building created in immatation of a Roman temple & in vaulted by a dome and encircled by classical columns. (Andrea Palladio)

Villa Rotunda

a perfect unity of geometric forms; 4 temple fronts each pointing n, w, s, e, and surround and inner cube of rooms.

Valutes

circular, spiral scroll-like motifs. (Ionic Order at the top of each column.)

doric column

no base, and topped by a smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus

Ionic column

valute design, & stands on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate, or platform.

Corinthian column

elaborate capitals decorated with leaves and scrolls.

abacus

a plain square block connecting the top of a doric column to the beam it supports.

stylobate

platform for a column.

pediments

triangular space just below the roof

relief sculpture

narrative action

friezes/metopes

decorative depictions on the beam above the columns.

trumeau

Central vertical supporting pillar of a doorway. (imitation of human or animal forms)

Lintel

horrizontal beam that rests on the jambs.

jambs

frames of a doorway.

atlantes

supports in post & lintel architecture of male figures.

caryatids

supports in post & lintel architecture of female figures.

squinches

block-like members laid accross the corners of a strucural unit to provide support for a dome.

corbelled arches

blocks stacked brick-wise to form a pointed arch.

catacombs

underground burial chambers outside Rome.

St. Chapelle

classical gothic cathedral located in Paris, France, is a stunning example of the Gothic use of stained glass windows to bring in light from heaven.

frescos

is a type of painting in which the artist paints in pigments mixed with water on wet or dry plaster.

Medici

family of Florence (13th-17th centuries) was wealthy, powerful banking family who patronized many of the well-known works of Renaissance art.

Giotto

was an early Florentine Renaissance painter and architect known for his dramatic, realistic frescos that depict of deep human expressions and emotions

Brunelleschi

(1377-1446) was a Florentine Renaissance architect who invented single vanishing point perspective and designed the brilliant, great, new dome for the Cathedral of Florence

Donatello

(1386-1466) was a famous Florentine early Renaissance sculptor and artist who created the well-known bronze statue David (shown above top left), the bronze equestrian statue Gattamelata (shown above bottom left), and the marble statue St. George (shown above right), all of which depict naturalism and realistic human feelings and emotions.

Botticelli

(1445-1510) was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance who painted figures whose feet did not touch the ground.

Pieter Brugel

(c. 1525-1569) is known for his portrayal of peasants and scenes from their everyday life.

Bernini

a famous and innovative Italian sculptor of the Baroque period whose sculptures, such as David, Apollo and Daphne, St. Peter's Chair, and Ecstasy of St. Theresa are full of dynamic movement and emotion.

Rembrandt

(1601-1669) one of the best painters and printmakers of all time, lived during the Baroque period and is remembered for his dramatic use of light, single, group, and self-portraits and works such as The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, The Night Watch, The Descent from the Cross, and Abraham and Isaac.

Chiaroscuro

a bold contrast between light and dark.

Jan Vermeer

Dutch Baroque artist (1632-1675) who painted this painting Milkmaid is best known for his depiction of scenes from middle-class society that show life at home and the nobility of work.

Christopher Wren

(1632-1723) oversaw the rebuilding of St. Paul's Cathedral (shown in pictures) in London after the church burned down during the Great Fire of 1666.

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