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Seeley's Anatomy Nineth Edition

Urine formation involves

filtration of the plasma, reabsorption from the filtrate, and the secretion into the filtrate.

Formation of filtrate depends on a

pressure gradient

The active transport of substances into the filtrate is called

tubular secretion.

The part of the cardiac output through the kidneys

is the renal fraction

The amount of filtrate produced per minute is called

the glomerular filtration rate

At the rate of 125 ml of filtrate/minute, estimate the amount of filtrate formed in 24 hours.

180 liters.

What percent of filtrate becomes urine?

less than 1 %

Decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure affects renal function by

increasing net filtration pressure.

The movement of fluid into Bowman's capsule is opposed by

capsular pressure

What pressure tends to force fluid from the glomerulus through the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule

glomerular capillary pressure

What event would increase filtration pressure

constriction of the efferent arteriole

Substances that are cotransported into proximal convoluted tubule cells include

glucose molecules with sodium ions

Most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the

proximal convoluted tubule

the proximal convoluted tuble

the site of glucose and amino acid reabsorption

Glucose is usually completely reabsorbed from the filtrate by the time the filtrate has reached

the end of the proximal convoluted tubule

The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubles

vary in their permeability to water relative to the amounts of ADH present.

The collecting duct becomes more permeable to water when

ADH production increases

As ADH production declines

the urine volume increase

When ADH binds to receptor sites on distal tubule cells

the distal tubule is more permeable to water

Urea is

diffuse out of the collecting duct into the interstitial fluid of the medulla and then diffuse into the descending loop of Henle

Hydrogen ions are secreted into filtrate by both the

proximal and distal tubules

Tubular secretion occurs where

in the distal convoluted tubule

Tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ

that tubular secretion adds materials to the filtrate ; tubular reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate.

the vasa recta

collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid

the kidney dialysis machine is an example of

a mechanical counter current system

By the time filtrate reaches the tip of the loop of Henle,

80 % of the filtrate volume has been reabsorbed

Urine concentration and volume depend on water reabsorption in what

distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

Decreased ADH levels results in a urine high in

water content

Diabetes inspididus is the result of

decreased ADH production

the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes

renin

Renin converts

angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

The kidneys produce renin when

the blood pressure is the afferent arteriole decreases

Angiotensin II

stimulates aldosterone secretion

Aldosterone targets cells

in the distal convoluted tuble

Aldosterone exerts its effect on the kidney tubules by

increasing the synthesis of the transport molecules for sodium

consumption of alcohol increases urine production by

inhibiting the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary

Atrial natriuretic hormone

is secreted when atrial blood pressure increases

autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of

constriction of afferent aterioles

When macula densa cells experience increased NA+ concentration in the filtrate, they respond by

decreasing renin secretion.

Decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles results in

increased renin secretion.

Increased secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone results in

increased urine output.

Urine flows through the ureters to the bladder as the result of

peristaltic contractions

removal of the posterior pituitary will immediately cause

an increase in urine volume

the proximal convoluted tubule is

the site of glucose and amino acid reabsorption.

Most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate

in the proximal convoluted tubule

Urine is carried from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by the

ureter

Arrange the following structures in correct sequence
1) ureter
2) renal pelvis
3) calyx
4) urinary bladder
5) urethra

3-2-1-4-5

Blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the

hilum

the structural and functional units of the kidneys are called

nephrons

the juxtamedullary nephrons

have long loops of Henle

the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule

is part of the filtration membrane and contains podocytes

an obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the

glomerulus

The filtration membrane consists of the

podocytes, capillary endothelium, and basement membrane

One feature of renal blood circulation that makes it unique is that

each nephron has at lease two capillary networks.

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