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Chapter 11

Internet aka net

a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.

two of the more widely used Internet services

Web, and e-mail

(ARPA

The Internet has its roots in a networking project started by the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense.

ARPA's goal

to build a network that (1) allowed scientists at different physical locations to share information and work together on military and scientific projects and (2) could function even if part of the network were disabled or destroyed by a disaster such as a nuclear attack.

ARPANET

became functional in September 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers across the United States.

ARPANET consisted of four main computers

one each located at the University of California at Los Angeles, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Stanford Research Institute, and the University of Utah.

host

, more commonly known today as a server, is any computer that provides services and connections to other computers on a network.

NSFnet

the National Science Foundation (NSF) connected its huge network of five super computer centers

traffic

communications activity on the internet

W3C )

oversees research and sets standards and guidelines for many areas of the Internet

The mission of the W3C

contribute to the growth of the Web

Internet2

a not-for-profit research and development project that connects more than 200 universities and 115 companies via a high-speed private network.

broadband

High speed internet connection provided through cable, DSL, fiber, radio signals or sattelite

Cable Internet service

provides high-speed Internet access through the cable television network via a cable modem.

DSL (digital subscriber line

provides high-speed Internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.

Fiber to the Premises (FTTP)

uses fiber-optic cable to provide high-speed Internet access to home and business users.

Fixed wireless

provides high-speed Internet connections using a dish-shaped antenna on your house or business to communicate with a tower location via radio signals.

cellular radio network

offers high-speed Internet connections to devices with built-in compatible technology or computers with wireless modems.

Wi-Fi

network uses radio signals to provide high-speed Internet connections to compatible or properly equipped wireless computers and devices.

Satellite Internet service

provides high-speed Internet connections via satellite to a satellite dish that communicates with a satellite modem.

Dial-up access

takes place when the modem in your computer connects to the Internet via a standard telephone line that transmits data and information using an analog (continuous wave pattern) signal

hot spots

Many public locations, such as airports, hotels, schools, shopping malls, and coffee shops, provide Wi-Fi Internet connections to users with mobile computers or devices

access provider

a business that provides individuals and organizations access to the Internet free or for a fee

file

a named unit of storage.)

ISP (Internet service provider)

is a regional or national access provider.

regional ISP

usually provides Internet access to a specific geographic area

national ISP

a business that provides Internet access in cities and towns nationwide

online service provider (OSP)

also has many members-only features such as instant messaging or their own customized version of a Web browser.

wireless Internet service provider

sometimes called a wireless data provider, is a company that provides wireless Internet access to desktop and notebook computers and mobile devices, such as smart phones and portable media players, with built-in wireless capability (such as Wi-Fi) or to computers using wireless modems or wireless access devices

Internet backbone.

These major carriers of network traffic

IP address

short for Internet Protocol address, is a number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.

domain name

the text version of an IP address

top-level domain (TLD)

which is the last section of the domain name

registrar

an organization that sells and manages domain names.

domain name system (DNS)

the method that the Internet uses to store domain names and their corresponding IP addresses

DNS server

translates the domain name to its associated IP address so that data and information can be routed to the correct computer

World Wide Web (WWW ), or Web

consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents

Web page

electronic document on the Web

Web site

a collection of related Web pages and associated items, such as documents and pictures, stored on a Web server

Web server

a computer that delivers requested Web pages to your computer. The same Web server can store multiple Web sites

Web 2.0

to refer to Web sites that provide a means for users to share personal information (such as social networking Web sites), allow users to modify Web site content (such as wikis, which are discussed later in this chapter), and have application software built into the site for visitors to use (such as e-mail and word processing programs)

Web browser , or browser

is application software that allows users to access and view Web pages or access Web 2.0 programs

, home page ,

refers to the first page that a Web site displays.

link

short for hyperlink , is a built-in connection to another related Web page or part of a Web page.

microbrowser

Internet-enabled mobile devices such as smart phones use a special type of browser,

Downloading

is the process of a computer or device receiving information, such as a Web page, from a server on the Internet

URL (Uniform Resource Locator ) or Web address

Web page has a unique address

http , which stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol

is a set of rules that de fines how pages transfer on the Internet

bookmark , or favorite

is a saved Web address that you access by clicking its name in a list

request, or pull ,

you enter a Web address in a browser,

push

content to your computer at regular intervals or whenever updates are made to the site.

Hypertext

refers to links in text-based documents,

hypermedia

combines text-based links with graphic, audio, and video links.

search engine

a program that finds Web sites, Web pages, images, videos, news, maps, and other information related to a specific topic.

subject directory

classifies Web pages in an organized set of categories, such as sports or shopping, and related subcategories.

search text or search query

Search engines require that you enter a word or phrase,

keyword

Each word in the search text

hits

The results of the search

spider

a program that builds and maintains lists of words found on Web sites

portal

a Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location

online community

a Web site that joins a specific group of people with similar interests or relationships

wireless portal

a portal designed for Internet-enabled mobile devices.

blog , short for Weblog

an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order

video blog , or vlog

A blog that contains video clips

blogosphere

worldwide collection of blogs,

vlogosphere

all vlogs worldwide.

wiki

a collaborative Web site that allows users to create, add to, modify, or delete the Web site content via their Web browse

online social network , also called a social networking Web site

a Web site that encourages members in its online community to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users

media sharing Web site

a specific type of online social network that enables members to share media such as photos, music, and videos

Web application , or Web app

a Web site that allows users to access and interact with software through a Web browser on any computer or device that is connected to the Internet.

content aggregator

a business that gathers and organizes Web content and then distributes, or feeds, the content to subscribers for free or a fee

RSS 2.0 , which stands for Really Simple Syndication

a specification that some content aggregators use to distribute content to subscribers

Atom

another specification sometimes used by content aggregators to distribute content.

Multimedia

refers to any application that combines text with graphics, animation, audio, video, and/or virtual reality

graphic , or graphical image

a digital representation of nontext information such as a drawing, chart, or photo.

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