System by which we name and classify all organisms, living and extinct
Carl Linnaeus: Binomial nomenclature
18th centry Carl Linnaeus made this b/c every organism has a two-part name
Carl Linnaeus: taxa
Classification of every organsim into a hieracrchy or levels of organization
What are the taxa?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
What is the most general taxa and the most specific?
Most general: Kingdom
How was the 1950s and 1960s kingdoms like?
All organism were placed into only three kindgoms
How was the 1990 kingdoms like?
Scientists classified all organisms into five kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
In 1990, what did scientists add?
They added the kingdom Archaebactera, this includes extremophiles
Microorgansims that live in extreme environments very different from bactera...placed in separte kingdom
What do scientists use today?
The three-domain system (based on DNA analysis)
What does What does the three-domain system refelct?
Reflects evolutionary history and the relationships among organisms.
What three domains are life organized in?
Bacteria, Arhaea, and Eukarya, superkingdoms that include four of the orginal kingdoms
Why isn't Monera used?
It's not used because in this system prokaryotes are spread across two different domains, Archaea and Bactera
Why was there a change to the three-domain system?
It was necessary b/c Archaea have so little in common with bactera that they must have their own group
Why was the Archaebactrea name changed to Archaea?
B/c the Arcahaea are not bactera.
What does the two domains Bacteria and Archaea both include?
They include prokaryotes
What are classifed in the domain Eukarya?
Protista, fungi, plants and animals
Domain Bacteria: Are these prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
All are single-celled prokaryotes with no internal membranes (no nucleus, mitrochondria, or chloroplasts)
Domain Bacteria: Are they anaerobes or aerobes?
Some are anaerobes some are aerobes
Domain Bacteria: What is their vital role in the ecosystem?
In the ecosystem, they are decomposers that recycle dead organic matter
Domain Bacteria: What is the majority of bacteria?
Many are PATHOGENS diesease causing
Domain Bacteria: What is their vital role in the human body?
GENETIC ENGINEERING, the bactera from the human intestine Escherichia coli, are usede to manufacture human intestine
Domain Bacteria: How do they reproduce?
Some carry conjugation, a primitive from of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic materal
Domain Bacteria: What kind of walls do they have?
Peptidoglycan, a thick rigid cell wall
Domain Bacteria: Do they carry out phtosysnthesis?
Some of them
Domain Bacteria: Do they have introns?
Nope...they don't have noncoding regions within the DNA
Domain Bacteria: What do member species correspond to?
They correspond rougly to the old grouping: Eubactria and include blue-green algae, bactera like E. Coli that live in the human intestine, those that cause disease like Clostridium botulinum and Streptococcus and those in the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and others
Domain Archaea: Are the they double or unicellur?
Domain Archaea: Are they eukaryotes or prokaryotic?
They have no internal membranes such as a nucleus
Domain Archaea: What kind of extremophiles do they have?
Methanogens, Halophiles and thermohphiles
Domain Archaea: Methanogens
Obtain energy in a unique way by producing methane from hydrogen
Domain Archaea: Halophiles
Thrive in environments with high salt concentrations like Utah's Great Salt Lake
Domian Archea: Thermophiles
Thrive in a very high temperatures like in the hot springs in Yellowstone Park or in deep sea-hydrothermal vents
All organisms have nucleus and internal organelles
What does eukarya include?
Protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista
widest variety of organism but all eukaryotes
examples of heterotrophs are amoeba and paramecium
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: How are the cells like?
most are single-celled but many are primitive multicelled organisms
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What kind of "trophs" do they include?
includes heterotrophs and autotrophs
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What are examples of heterotrophs?
Any of various one-celled aquatic or parasitic protozoans of the genus Amoeba or related genera, having no definite form and consisting of a mass of protoplasm containing one or more nuclei surrounded by a flexible outer membrane. Amoebas move by means of pseudopods.
Any of various freshwater ciliate protozoans of the genus Paramecium, usually oval and having an oral groove for feeding.
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What are examples of autotrophs?
euglenas: which have a red eyespot to locate light and chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: How do protista move?
Amoeba uses pseudospods, paramecium uses cilia, euglena uses flagellum
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What else does this include?
Also in fungi or plant kingdoms, such as seaweeds and slime molds
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What does this carry?
Some protista (like paramecium and algae) carry out conjugation,
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: Conjugation
primitive from of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic material
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Kingdom Protista: What diseases does this cause?
Amoebic dysentery and malaria
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: are they prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: are they unicellular or multicelluar?
They can be either
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: What do they carry out?
Fungi carry out extracellular digestion
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi:Extracellular digestion
Secretes hydrolytic enzymes outside body. After digestion the building blocks of nutrients are absorbed into body of fugus by diffusion
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: What are these important for?
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: Saprobes
Organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter. They recycle nutrients in ecosystem
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: What are the cell walls composed of?
composed of Chitin not cellulose.
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: What do certain fungi combine with?
They combine w/ algae in a mutualistic, symbiotic relationship forming various lichens, which are photosynthetic.
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: Pioneer organisms
Lichens, first to colonize a barren environment in an ecological sucession
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: How do they reproduce?
They reproduce asexually by budding (yeast) spore formation (bread mold) or fragmentation whereby a single parent breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new individual. They also reproduce sexually
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Fungi: What are examples?
Yeast, mold, mushrooms, and fungus that causes athlete's foot
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: are these eukaryotes or prokaryotes?
All are multicellular, nonmotile, and autortrophic eukaryotes
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: What are the cell walls made out of?
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: What do plants carry out?
Photosynthesis use cholopyll a and b
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: What do plants store?
plants store carbohydrates as starch
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: How do they reproduce?
They reproduce sexually by alternating between gametophyte (n) and sporophyte(2n) igenerations (known as alternation of generations)
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: What do plants have?
Vascular tissue (tracheophytes) and some have no vascular tissues (bryophytes)
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Plantae: What are examples?
Mosses, ferns, cone-bearing, and flowering plants
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia: What kind of cells are these?
Heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia: How do they move?
Most are motile, can move on their own
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia: How do these animals reproduce?
They reproduce sexually with a dominant diploid (2n) stage
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia: what do most species fertilize?
A small flagellated sperm fertilizes a larger nonmotile egg
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia How do you classify animals?:
Based on anatomical features (homologous structures) and embryonic development
The four kingdoms of eukarya: Animalia: what are they grouped in?
35 phyla, 9: porifera, cnidarians, platyhelminthes, nematodes, annelids, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and chordates
What were organisms first like? Where did they first live? When did they live?
Their tiny primitive and single celled. They live in the oceans. They evolved 1.5 billion years ago.
What represents evolution?
The appearance of each phylum of animal represents the evolution of a new and successful body plan
What represents evolution?: What are important trends in animals?
Specialization of tissues, germ layers, body symmetry, development of a head end, body cavity formation
Basic unit of all forms of life. Neuron is a cell
Group of similar cells that perform a particular function. The sciatic nerve is a tissue
Group of tissues that work together to perform related functions. The brain is a organ.
consist of a loose federation of cells which aren't considered tissue b/c cells are relatively unspecialized.
What kind of cells do sponges have?
They possess cells that can sense and react to environment but have no real nerve or muscular tissue
Hydra and jellyfish possess only the most primitive and simplest forms of tissue
What happens when animals evolve?
They are larger and more complex. Specialized cells join to form real tissues, organs, and organ systems
What do flatworms have?
They have organs but no organ system
Who has organ systems?
More complex animals like annelids (earthworms) and arthropods (grasshoppers) which have organ system
What are the germ layers?
They are the main layers that form various tissues and organs of the body
When are germ layers formed and what do they include?
They form early in the embryonic stage and include ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Germ Layers: Ectoderm
Outermost layer, becomes skin and nervous system including nerve cord and brain
Germ Layers: Endoderm
Innermost layer, become viscera (guts) or the digestiive system
Middle layer becomes blood muscles and bones
Animals w/ only two cell layers the porifera and cnidarians
What do diplobasic conssit of?
Their bodies consist of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoglea (middle glue) that holds two layers together
Middle glue that holds two layers together
More complex animal phyla having three true cell layers
Primitive animals exhibit this PG 176
Sophisticated animals exhibit this.
In bilateral symmetry how is body organized?
It's organized along a longitudinal axis with right and left sides that mirror each other
What animals are mostly bilaterally symmetrical animals?
Triploblastic with ectoderM, mesoderm, and endoderm
Cephalization Development of a head: What body developments comes along with bilateral symmetry?
Head end- the anterior, and a rear end, the posterior
Cephalization Development of a head: Whats clustered at the anterior end?
Sensory apparatus and a brain, or simply ganglia are clustered at the anterior end.
Cephalization Development of a head: What's located at the posterior end?
Digestive, excretory, and reproductive structures are located at the posterior end.
Cephalization Development of a head: What enables animals to move faster or flee or capture prey?
Th posterior end
Cephalization Development of a head: Do simple animals like sponges and cnidarians have head ends?
Cephalization Development of a head: Do sophisticated animals like flatworms to chordates have cephalization?
Body Cavity Formation: Coelom
Fluid-filled body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm
Body Cavity Formation: What does coelom represent of the animal?
It represents a significant advance in the course of animal evolution b/c it provies a space for elaborated organ systems
Body Cavity Formation: Can major organs evolve without coelom between germ layers?
Body Cavity Formation: Acoelomates
Flatworms don't have coelom
Body Cavity Formation: Pseudocoelomates
Have fluid-filled tube between endoderm and mesoderm (pseudocoelom not completely lined by mesoderm)
Body Cavity Formation: Coelomates
Animals w/ a coelom and are the most complex in the kingdom
Body Cavity Formation:What are coelamates, the most complex?
Annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, and chordata
PG 177 TABLE and PG 178 FIGURE 12.5
Porifera Sponges: Symmetry?
Porifera Sponges: How do they move and what kind of tissues do they have?
No nerve or muscle tissues and sessile, can't move
Porifera Sponges: How many layer cells do they have?
Ectoderm and endoderm connected by noncellular mesoglea
Porifera Sponges: What kind of cells do they have?
They have specilized cells but no true tissues or organs, each cell carries out many functions
Porifera Sponges: Where are these evolved from?
Evolved from colonial organisms;
Porifera Sponges: What happens when you squeeze a sponge?
It will separate into individual cells that will spontaneously reaggregate into a sponge
Porifera Sponges: Hermphodites
Also reproduce sexually
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Symmetry?
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: What kind of body plan does it have?
A polyp (vase shaped) which is mostly sessile, OR medusa (upside-down bowl shaped) motile
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Life cycle?
Some go through a plunula larva (free- swimming stage) then go through two reproductive stages: asexually reproducing (polyp) and sexually reproducing (medusa)
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: How many cell layers does it have?
Ectoderm and endoderm connected by noncellular mesoglea
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Gastrovascular cavity
Where extra cellular digestion occurs
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Lysosomes
Carry out intracellular digestion inside body cells
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Transport systems?
No transport system b/c every cell is in direct contact with the environment
Cnidarians: Hydra and Jellyfish: Cnidocytes
All member have stinging cells, containing stingers, which are called nematocysts
Platyhelminthes- flatworms and tapeworms: What kind of symmetry and body parts do these simple animals have?
bilateral symmetry, an anterior end and three distinct cell layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm
Platyhelminthes- flatworms and tapeworms How many openings does the digestive tract have?
Only one opening for both ingestion, and egestion so food can't be processed continously
Platyhelminthes- flatworms and tapeworms: What kind of bodies do worms have?
Solid body, but have no room for true digestive or respiratiory systems to circulate food or oxygen.
Their body is so flat and thin, many body cells can exchange nutrients and wastes by diffusion w/ environment
Nematodes Roundworms: What kind of worms are these?
They are unsegmented worms w/ bilateral symmetry but little sensory apparatus
Nematodes Roundworms: Are these dangerous?
Yes, their parasitic
Nematodes Roundworms: C elegans
widely used as an animal model in studying genes and embryonic devolopment
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: Symmetry and sensory?
Bilateral symmetry w/ little sensory apparatus
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: How are their digestive tracts like?
Tube-within- a- tube consisting of crop, gizzard and intestine
Annelids- segmented woms like earthworms and leeches: Nepridia
Excretion of nitrogen waste, urea
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: Closed circulatory system
Heart consists of five pairs of aortic arches
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: What does their blood contain?
Hemoglobin and carries oxygen
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: How is oxygen and carbon diffused?
Diffusion of oxygen and carbon through moist skin
Annelids- segmented worms like earthworms and leeches: Hermaphrodites?
Mollusks- Squides, Ocopuses, Slugs, Clams, Snails
Soft body often protected by a hard calcium-containing shell
Mollusks- Squides, Ocopuses, Slugs, Clams, Snails: What kind of circulatory system do they have?
Blood-filled spaces called hemoceoles or sinuses
Mollusks- Squides, Ocopuses, Slugs, Clams, Snails: What distinct body zones and symmetry do these have?
Head-foot- contains both sensory and motor organs
Visceral mass- contains organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
Mantle- specialized tissue that surround the visceral mass and secrets the shell
Mollusks- Squides, Ocopuses, Slugs, Clams, Snails: What acts like a tongue?
Radula, a movable tooth-bearing structure
Mollusks- Squides, Ocopuses, Slugs, Clams, Snails: What do these most likely have?
Gills and nephridia
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider): What kind of body do they have?
Jointed appendagesexternal body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs)
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider) What is segmented?
Segmented into head, thorax, abdomen
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider) What gives them more speed and freedom of movement?
More sensory apparatus then in annelids
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider) What does the chitinous exoskeleton do?
Protects animals and aids in movement
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider): What kind of circulatory system do they have?
With tubular heart and hemocoels, sinuses
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider)- Malpighian tubules
Removal of nitrogenous wastes, uric acid
Arthropods- Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider): how is the trachea like?
Brings air from environment into hemocoels
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins: How do these move?
They are sessile or slow moving
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins What is their symmetry and anatomy like?
They have bilateral symmetry as an embryo but revert to primitive radial symmetry as an adult. The radial anatomy of the adult is an adaptation to a sedentary lifestyle.
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins: What kind of systems do these have?
Water vascular systems that creates hydrostatic support for the tube feet, the locomotive structures
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins : How do these reproduce?
These are echinoderms that reproduce by sexual reproduction w/ external fertilization
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins: How else do echinoderms reproduce?
They reproduce by sexual reproduction with external fertilization
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins: How else can they reproduce?
They can also reproduce by fragmentation and regeneration . Any piece of a sea star that contains part of the central canal will form a completely new organism
Echinoderms- Sea stars (Starfish) and Sea Urchins: What kind of body do sea stars have?
Sea stars have endoskeleton consisting of calcium plates. An endoskeleton grows with the body. In contrast an exoskeleton doesn't grow with the body, and must be shed periodically
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: Notochord
Rod that extends length of body and serves as a flexible axis
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: What kind of body do they have?
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: What does the tail do?
The tail aids in movement and balance
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: What does the tail in humans do?
It's a vestige of a tail
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: Homeotherms
Birds and mamals maintain consistent body temperture
Chordates- fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals: Endotherms
Fish, amphibians, reptiles (heat from within)and are able to raise their body temperature
Characteristics of Mammals: What do mammals belong in?
They belong in phylum Chordata
Characteristics of Mammals:How do mothers nourish their babies?
They nourish them w/ milk from mammary glands
Characteristics of Mammals: How is their appearance like?
They have hair or fur
Characteristics of Mammals: Are they endotherms?
Characteristics of Mammals: Eutherians
Plancental mammals- The embryo develops internally in a uterus connected to the mother by a placenta, where nutrients diffuse from mother to embryo
Characteristics of Mammals:Marsupials
Kangaroos are born very early in embryonic development. the "joey" completes its development while nursing in mother's pouch attached to a teat (the protuberance through which milk is drawn from an udder or breast)
Characteristics of Mammals: Monotremes
Egg-laying mammals, like duck-billed platypus and spiny anteater derive nutrients from a shelled egg
Birds and mammals
Characteristics of primates: What else are primates?
Humans are primates
Characteristics of primates: where did this descend from?
Insectivores, probably from small tree-dwelling mammals
Characteristics of primates: What kind of hands to they have?
Primates have dexterous hands, and opposable thumbs which makes it possible to do find-motor tasks
Characteristics of primates: What replaced claws?
Characteristics of primates: What do hands contain?
Hands and fingers contain many nerve endings and are sensitive
Characteristics of primates: How are primates eyes like?
Forward facing and set close together. Front-facing eyes foster face-to-face communication. Close-set eyes are responsible for overlapping fields of vision, which enhance depth perception and hand-eye coordination
Characteristics of primates: What do mammals devote their time to?
They devote it to parenting of young primates engage in the most intense parenting of any mammal
Characteristics of primates: How births do they give?
Single births and they also nurture their young for a long time
Characteristics of primates: What do primates include?
They include humans, gorillas, chimps, orangutans gibbons and old world and new world monkeys