Biology 1308 Chapter 1

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Biology

Study of life

Common characteristics shared by living organism include;

Order, regulation, growth, development, and energy utilization.

Order

All living things that are highly complex and organized

Regulation

All living things exhibit

Homeostasis

Ability to maintain constant internal environment. A good ex; Of Homeostasis is the human body maintaining a constant internal body temperature, no matter what the outside environmental temperature is, the internal body temperature remains relatively constant

Growth and Development

All living organisms exhibit an increase in size and shape during their lifetime

Energy Utilization

To maintain their highly complex and organized structure living things need material in the form of nutrients

Producers

Plants obtain their energy from the sunlight

Consumers

Animals that obtain energy from molecules within other organism

Energy flow

Sunlight---> Producer----> Consumer

Response to the environment

All living things respond to stimulus in their external and internal environment
(Animals have strong sensory organs that allow them to respond to a change in environment) (Plants is limited such as bending of the plant toward the source of light)

Reproduction

All living things have the capacity to reproduce

DNA

Hereditary of life

Evolution

Capacity of population to change over time

Life at many levels

Atoms-> Molecules-> Organelles->Cell> Tissue->Organs-> Organ System-> Individual organism-> Population-> Community-> Ecosystem-> Biosphere

Atom

Smallest unit of matter
(Made of electrons, protons, and neutrons)

Molecule

Composed of 2 or more atoms of the same type or different elements.
(Carbohydrates, Proteins, etc.)

Cell

Smallest unit of life
* Can survive and reproduce on its own

Tissue

Group or cells performing similar functions

Organ

Composed of two or more tissues interacting in a specific group

Organ System

A group or organs involved in a specific function

Organism

Individual living being made of different organ systems

Population

Group of individuals of the same type occupying a specific area

Community

All populations of all types occupying a specific area

Ecosystem

A community interacting with its non-living physical environment

Biosphere

Highest level of life
(Includes all regions of the earth's crust)

Cells can be divided into two basic types

Prokarytoic and Eukaryotic

Prokarytoic Cell

*Generally simpler and smaller in size
*Lack nucleus, DNA is present in the cytoplasm
*Lack membrane bound organelles
*Bacteria

Eukaryotic

* Generally complex and larger in size
* Membrane bound nucleus present with DAN inside
* Have well defined bound organelles,(Chloroplast, Mitochondria)
* Plants and Animals

Diversity of life

Scientists classify all living things into three domains
1. Domain Bacteria (Made up Prokaryotic Cells)
2. Archaea (Made up Prokaryotic Cells)
3. Eukarya (Made up Eukaryotic Cells)

Domain Bacteria

* Prokaryotes
*Unicellular (Single cell)
* Some make their own food by the process of photosynthesis
*Found in normal habitats

Domain Archaea

* Prokaryotes
*Unicellular (Single cell)
* None can make their own food
*Found in Hersh habitats (Boiling ocean, Freezing dessert rocks, Sulfur-rich lakes)

Domain Eukarya

*Include all organism with eukaryotic cell
* Unicellular and Multicellular
* Based on their structure and how they obtain food, this domain split into smaller categories(KINGDOMS)

Plantae

*Plants
*Multi-cellular
*Eukaryotes
* Obtain their food by photosynthesis

Fungi

* Multi-cellular
* Eukaryotes
* Obtains their food by absorption from the environment

Animalia

* Multi-cellular
* Eukaryotes
* Obtain their food by ingestion

Protist

*Unicellular
*Eukaryotes
* Absorb from the environment
* Ingest(Eat food through mouth)
* Make their own food

Theory Of Evolution

Proposed by Charles Darwin states that evolution is due to three natural processes
1. Genetic variation
2.Inheritance of these variations by offspring's
3. Natural Selection

Genetic variation

Makes us all different is mainly due to differences in our hereditary material
* DNA one of the major causes for this variation is MUTATION (Change in DNA sequence)

Inheritance

Variations by offspring's, especially the ones that are beneficial

Natural selection

Over time only those organism that are better suitable to the environment survive and multiply thus producing a population which is better adaptable to the environment

Scientific Method of Science

1. Observation
2. Question
3. Hypothesis
4. Predictions
5. Experiment
6. Conclusion

Observation

A tentative explanation that a scientists proposes for a specific phenomenon that has been observed

Hypothesis

Which is the first explanation of a problem? It is sometimes called an educated guess
* Proposed explanation for a set of observations-an idea on trial

Scientific theory

When a hypothesis has been repeatedly and rigorously tested and supported

Which of the following does not belong to Eukarya?

Archae

A mutation is?

A change in DNA Sequence

Science

Method of learning about natural world that follows the scientific method

Theory

broad in scope & supported by a large body of evidence

Ecosystem

All organisms in given area, along with the nonliving(a biotic) facts which they interact, a biological community and it's physical environment

Life

*Set of common characteristics that distinguish living organism
*Including such properties and processes as order, regulation, growth and development, energy utilization, response to the environment, reproduction, and the capacity to evolve over time

Controlled experiment

Component of the process of science whereby a scientist carries out two parallel tests, an experiment test and a control test. The experimental test differs from the control by one factor the VARIABLE

Hypothesis driven science

Process of scientific inquiry that uses the steps of the scientific method of answer questions about nature

Discovery science

Process of scientific investigation involving the observation of phenomena the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena(Experimentation to demonstrate the truth or falseness of the hypothesis, and result that validate or notify the hypothesis

Biosphere

Global ecosystem; the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life (All of life and where it lives)

Verifiable observation and measurements the tools of

Discovery Science

The life supporting region of Earth is the

Biosphere

Nucleus

Largest organelle in most eukaryotic cells, houses of DNA, the heritable material that directs the cells' activities

Insulin

Chemical that helps regulate your body's use of sugar as a fuel

Taxonomy

Classification
*Branch of Biology that names and classifies species

Evolution

Process that has transformed life on Earth from it's earliest beginnings to the extensive diversity we have today.
*Theme that unifies all of biology

Discovery science

Describing nature
Verifiable observations and measurements

Hypothesis-driven science

Explaining nature

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