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alopecia

loss of hair on the body

auscultation

listening for sounds produced within the body

bilateral

occurring on or having two sides

body systems history

detailed questions about the body system (or systems) involved in the presenting problems.

body systems review

a review of the body systems to note any additional problems the animal may have.

capillary refill time

the time it takes for the vessels in the mucous membranes to return to normal after being pressed

cardiovascular system

the body system that circulates blood

cat bag

a restraining device consisting of a zippered bag with several openings for treating different parts of a cat's body

caudal

a directional term that means "towards the tail".

cephalic venipuncture

the taking of a blood sample from the foreleg of an animal

choana

a slitlike opening on the roof of the mouth in a bird

client education

a general term that covers many of the clients' interactions with the practice

condomes

skin lesions that resemble "blackheads"

cradle

a device that consists of wooden slats or round rods woven together that go around a horse's neck to keep the neck straight and prevent the horse from chewing at itself.

cranial

a directional term that means "toward the head."

dorsal

a directional term that means "toward the back."

Elizabethan collar

A circular plastic shield, resembling a lampshade, that encircles the neck and extends to the end of the muzzle. The collar prevents the animal from chewing at its bandages.

environmental history

the animal's most recent living situation

erythroderma

a medical term meaning "reddened skin"

head catch

that part of a stall or chute that traps cattle by the head; also called a head clamp, squeeze chute, or neck yoke

heart-girth tape

a flexible tape measuring device that weighs a horse by measuring its girth just behind the elbow in its heart area.

hobbles

rope or chain devices that encircle the rear legs, restricting their ability to kick

hog snare

a pole with a loop of cable at the end that can be tightened over a pig's snout.

integumentary system

the skin and attached structures, like hair

intervertebral disk disease

deteriorated cushions between the vertebrae

jugular venipuncture

the taking of a blood sample from the jugular vein of an animal.

keel

the breastbone of a bird

lateral recumbency

a restraint position in which the animal is lying on its side

master problem list

the first page of a veterinary medical chart, which serves as an index or table of contents fro the rest of the record

medial

a directional term meaning "toward the middle."

mouth gag

a wedge-shaped structure that prevents a horse from biting down while someone is examining or treating its mouth

nares

the nostrils

neuro hammer

an examination instrument used by the veterinarian to check an animal's reflexes

nose tongs

a cattle-restraint device that grasps the center of the nose just inside the nostrils to permit more head control.

ophthalmoscope

an instrument used to visualize the interior chamber of the eye, where signs of disease or trauma can sometimes be seen.

otoscope

an instrument used to inspect the ear of an animal; it is an essential diagnostic tool to determine types of infections and to discover foreign bodies in the ear canal.

palpitation

examining body parts of touch

papillae

a pimple-like structure that can be found in the ear canal, choana, etc.

papule

a hard, pimple-like skin bump

perfuse

to pump; in the animal, the body's ability to pump blood

presenting problem

the reason the animal is at the veterinarian's.

progress notes

the portion of a medical chart devoted to ongoing patient evaluation, arranged using the SOAP format.

pulmonary edema

fluid accumulation in the lungs

pulse deficits

distinct differences between the point at which the heart beats and the point at which a pulse beat is felt. The pulse should be felt immediately after the heart beats.

radiographs

x-rays

rales

abnormal crackling sounds heard in the lungs

respiratory system

the body system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

scruff (scruffing)

grasping the loose skin behind an animal's neck; often used as a restraint methods for rabbits, cats, and ferrets

seizure

a short circuit in the brain that makes the animal lose control over its body.

signalment

the overall patient description

SOAP format

an acronym for the four divisions of the progress notes sections of the patient record. The letters in the acronym represent the Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Procedure or Plan sections

symmetrical

even in size and shape

thoracic area

the chest cavity of an animal

twitch

a horse-restraint device, usually either a long wooden handle affixed to a short loop of chain, or two hinged metal handles that pinch and hold

tympanic membrane

the membrane that covers the ear drum

ventral

a directional term that means "toward the anterior of front"

vertebrae

the bones of the spine

A large St. Bernard enters the veterinarian's office for a routine physical examination. You, as the veterinary technician, must greet the animal and take it to the examination room. As you approach the animal, what is the first step you should take to gain its confidence?

...

When taking a cat's pulse, you determine that its heart beats 37 times in 15 seconds. Which of the following is the correct heart rate?

...

To restrain cattle one at a time for examination of the head, you would use a

...

The subjective information entered into the animal's medical chart using the SOAP format could include which of the following information?

...

An instrument used to inspect the ear canal of an animal for signs of disease or foreign objects is known as a/an

...

A Rottweiler is brought into the veterinarian's office for a routine physical examination. The veterinarian is running behind and asks you to perform the physical exam while he is with another patient. Your examination progresses to auscultation of the heart. What are the four parameters you need to pay attention to during this portion of the exam?

...

Which of the following questions is an example of a nonleading question that's most appropriate during the history-taking part of the physical examination?

...

Part of a veterinary technician's client education responsibilities may include

...

Which of the following animals can be stretched for restraint in the same manner as a cat?

...

Sunny, an African Grey, is presented for his annual avian physical examination. You know that Sunny and his owner have traveled over 20 miles to the veterinarian's office. When observing Sunny in his carrier, you note that he's standing on the floor of his cage. This bird may very well be exhibiting signs of

...

To note any additional problems an animal may have, you should conduct a(n) ___ when interviewing the client.

...

Which of the following activities describes auscultation?

Listening to the animal's heartbeat.

Working for a veterinarian that handles mostly farm animals, you drive out to a farm to assist with a routine physical examination on several small piglets. Which of the following is the best way to catch a small piglet?

...

What is the hardest thing about performing abdominal palpitation on a small animal?

...

You're speaking with the owner of a small, brown Poodle, and ask the question "Where does Cocoa scratch?" This question is a part of Cocoa's

...

When restraining a dog for jugular venipuncture, the dog's head should be lifted so the lines of his head and neck slightly exceed a

...

When restraining a horse for a routine veterinary procedure, it's appropriate for the veterinary technician to

...

During the integumentary examination of Lefty, a Siamese cat, you gently pinch a good handful of skin and time how long it takes for the skin to return to its normal state. This procedure measures ___ pressure.

...

Which of the following methods is the best way to restrain a rabbit?

...

The ___ tends to kick to the side, so the rear legs are often restrained during the physical examination.

...

The procedure section of the SOAP format describes which of the following considerations?

...

Which of the following is a common indicator of a problem in an animal's central nervous system?

...

The owner of a large Bulldog brings his pet to the veterinarian for a routine physical examination. You ask the question "How often do you travel with Rocky?" This question is part of Rocky's

...

As a veterinary technician, you're taking a Cocker Spaniel's respiratory rate. The dog takes 11 breaths in 30 seconds. You therefore calculate the respiratory rate to be how many respirations per minute?

...

A systems history about the gastrointestinal system includes questions about

...

Without a ___ ___ on an animal, you can't arrive at a diagnosis.

physical examination

You would check the animal's ___ system if it presented with a sore leg.

musculoskeletal

What helps the veterinarian evaluate the patient's physical status, develop a diagnosis, and offer a prognosis?

medical history

If a dog presented with a cough, you would check the dog's ___ system and its ___ system.

respiratory, cardiovascular

Which of the following are components of the signalment?

c

Taking a good history is a critical part of the physical examination because a good history

c

If the owner tells you the dog is scratching a lot, you need to check the dog's ___ system.

integumentary

Which statement is true of the animal's patient history?

c

True or false? When interviewing a client about the animal's medical history, ask open-ended questions.

True

If you want to learn what a pet eats, its exposure to water, and its travel situation, you'll take a(n) ___ history.

environmental

Appropriate small-animal restraint techniques

don't involve excessive force, and don't hurt the animal.

When handling a large dog for examination, it's best to

have two people pick the dog up, one at the front end and one at the rear quarter.

Taking a blood sample from a small animal

often employs a tourniquet if the sample comes from a leg vein.

True or false? The hind legs of a rabbit have a tremendous amount of power.

True.

True or false? When you're carrying a cat correctly, its breastbone should be along the inside of your forearm.

True.

When restraining a bird, you must make sure not to apply pressure to its

breastbone.

In the process of approaching a horse, it's best to

whistle or talk to the horse to let it know you're approaching.

A veterinary technican restraining a horse for physical examination should

stand on the same side of the horse as the veterinarian.

True or False? A bull's nose ring is largely decorative

False

One good way to restrain a sheep for physical examination is to

set the animal up on its rump

True or false? A properly used hog snare tigthens around the pig's neck.

False

You're preparing a horse for a physical examination. You're correctly employed a heart-girth tape and rectal thermometer, observed the frequency of the horse's breathing, and written down your findings. When completing these tasks, you've

neglected to the record the horse's heart rate.

You're examining a dog. Your tasks include

auscultation of the heart and lungs.

The correct method of taking an animal's respiratory rate includes

counting how many times the chest wall moves in and out.

True or false? Both large and small domestic animals have higher normal temperatures than humans do.

True

Your veterinarian instructs you to take a small animal's pulse. You know that this is traditionally done

on the inside of the animal's thigh.

Auscultation of the heart is performed in four zones. These zones correspond to the

mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves.

Lymph nodes that are examined by palpitation are

popliteal, axillary, inguinal, submandibular, and prescapular.

Which of the following are the four components of the SOAP format for medical record keeping?

Subjective, objective, assessment, and procedure or plan

The objective section of the SOAP format would include all of the following except

sleeping habits

A stack of information has fallen out of a patient's medical record. As you return it to the file, using the standard chronological organization, you know to place the notes from September 11, 1996

below the notes from October 26, 1997.

The veterinary medical record is

the property of the veterinarian practice or hospital.

Which sentence would you expect to find in the assessment section of the SOAP format?

"This could be caused by a virus or a bacterial infection."

True or false? The veterinarian performs most veterinary education.

True

Which of the following is true of veterinary client education?

It's crucial for an animal to receive proper postoperative care.

A veterinary technician who chooses a topic and requests training to learn how to educate clients about it is

becoming a more valuable employee.

When does the client education process occur?

Throughout the animal's examination and treatment.

Without a ___ ___ on an animal, you can't arrive at a diagnosis.

physical examination

You would check the animal's ___ system if it presented with a sore leg.

musculoskeletal

What helps the veterinarian evaluate the patient's physical status, develop a diagnosis, and offer a prognosis?

medical history

If a dog presented with a cough, you would check the dog's ___ system and its ___ system.

respiratory, cardiovascular

Which of the following are components of the signalment?

c

Taking a good history is a critical part of the physical examination because a good history

c

If the owner tells you the dog is scratching a lot, you need to check the dog's ___ system.

integumentary

Which statement is true of the animal's patient history?

c

True or False? When interviewing a client about the animal's medical history, ask open-ended questions.

true

If you want to learn what a pet eats, its exposure to water, and its travel situation, you'll take a(n) ___ history.

environmental

signalment

includes the breed, age, gender, and reproductive status

good, thorough history involves

identifying the primary or presenting problem; taking a medical history; taking the environmental history; reviewing the body systems;

to identify the presenting problem ask

When did the animal begin to show that something was wrong? How quickly did the symptoms progress? What improvement, if any, has occurred? Has the animal gotten worse? What about any changes in the animal's routine around the onset of signs? Has the animal's diet, living situation, or exertion level changed?

to identify environmental history ask

What does the animal eat? How do you feed the animal? Once or twice a day (or more)? How big is each meal? What nutritional products does the animal eat? Does it get any supplements? Is the animal on flea prevention? if so, what kind? Is The animal on parasite heartworm preventative? If so, what kind? What, if any, recent changes have occured in the animal's diet? What's the animal's exposure to water? Does the animal drink tap water? What tests have been run on the water for purity, mineral content, and the like? Is the animal an indoor, outdoor, or indoor/outdoor pet?

sequence to obtain body systems information

acquire the body systems history; perform a body systems review; review the integumentary system, Ask questions about itching; review the head and neck, ask about the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth; review the respiratory system, some coughs can signal heart disease, especially those that occur primarily at night.; review the cardiovascular system; review the gastrointestinal system

cardiovascular (heart) disease symptoms

can cause coughing because a malfunctioning heart affects the blood pressure balance in the lungs, causing fluid to leak from flood vessels into the lungs.

pulmonary edema

could indicate heart disease; other signs could include labored breathing, and fluid accumulation in the abdomen

vital statistics

weight, temperature, heart rate, respiration rate

Where do you take the heart rate through pulse for small animals?

Femoral artery on the inside of the thigh

Where do you take the heart rate through pulse for large animals?

Facial artery where it crosses the jawbone near the neck.

How to calculate heart rate

Count the number of beats in a 15-second period and multiply that number by 4 to determine bpm.

full respiration

one inhalation, one exhalation

When checking for fleas and flea dirt, . . .

rub against the grain of the hair coat to view the skin beneath. The most common areas to see fleas and/or flea dirt are the hindquarters just cranial (toward the head) from the base of teh tail and in the inguinal region (between the rear legs). Hydrogen peroxide will foam in the presence of blood.

turgor pressure

normal elasticity of the skin (see turgor pressure chart on p. 61)

The thorax is divided into ___ segments.

nine

Examination of the circulatory system starts at the ___.

mouth

Capillary refill time

checked by pressing on the gums until they turn white, then releasing pressure. It is normally two seconds or less.

Three heart zones on the left side of the thorax

mitral valve, aortic valve, pulmonary valve

Heart zone on the right side of the thorax

tricuspid valve

pulse deficit

difference between the heart beat and pulse beat. A pulse deficit is ascertained by feeling the pulse beat while listening to the heart beat. Both beats should either occur at the same time; if not, the pulse beat is notably slower than the heart beat. If the pulse beat is notably slower than the heart beat, or if the pulse beat is missing, a pulse deficit exists.

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