VIEWING AND REPRESENTING
AN EXTRA LANGUAGE DOMAIN THAT STRESSES THE IMPORTANCE OF USING VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA WITH ELLS DUE TO THE EASE OF COMBINING AUDIO, VIDEO, TACTILE, AND GRAPHICAL ORGANIZATION OF CONTENT AND CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEWS.
NEW LANGUAGE IS BASED ON SIMPLE ALREADY FAMILIAR TERMS (THE LEVEL AT WHICH THE CHILD CAN COMPREHEND OR UNDERSTAND WHAT IS BEING SAID) WHEN STUDENTS ARE AT EASE WITH THEIR L1 THEY FIND IT EASIER TO GENERATE ENGLISH ORAL COMMUNICATION
EXAMPLES OF KEEPING THE AFFECTIVE FILTER LOW AND THE INPUT COMPREHENSIBLE FOR THE CHILD
STICKING TO SIMPLE, NON-IDIOMATIC LANGUAGE, TALKING IN SMALL GROUPS, USING GESTURES, AND AVOIDING HARSH CRITICISM ON MISTAKES
BASED ON THE FOLLOWING.....
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION-(AN UNCONSCIOUS PROCESS DEVELOPED THROUGH USING LANGUAGE MEANINGFULLY) IS DIFFERENT FROM LANGUAGE LEARNING 9CONSIOUSLY CONSCIOUSLY STUDYING OR DIRECTLY LEARNING RULES ABOUT A LANGUAGE) AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IS THE WAY TO TRUE COMPETENCE IN SECOND LANGUAGE (ACQUISITION/ LEARNING HYPOTHESIS)
CONSCIOUS LEARNING OPERATES ONLY AS A MONITOR THAT ORE CHECKS OR REPAIR ONES OUTPUT (MONITOR HYPOTHESIS) EX: BEFORE SPEAKING ONE RUNS THE PHRASE THRU THEIR MIND AND CORRECTS THEMSELVES BEFORE SPEAKING THE PHRASE IN THEIR L2
SOME GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES SEEM TO BE ACQUIRED IN A PREDICTABLE ORDER (NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS)
PEOPLE ACQUIRE LANGUAGE AND IMPROVE BEST FROM MESSAGES THAT ARE JUST SLIGHTLY BEYOND THEIR CURRENT COMPETENCE (INPUT HYPOTHESIS) BUT LEARNERS MUST BE ABLE TO COMPREHEND/UNDERSTAND AT THE LEAST THE GIST OF WHAT IS BEING SAID TO THEM OR WHAT IS WRITTEN IN ORDER TO RESPOND
THE LEARNER'S EMOTIONAL STATE CAN ACT AS A FILTER THAT IMPEDES OR BLOCKS INPUT NECESSARY TO ACQUISITION (AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS)
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
METHOD IN WHICH THE TEACHER IS THE COMMAND GIVER AND THE NEWLY ARRIVED STUDENT IS THE ORDER TAKER
(BEING COMPETENT IN COMMUNICATING)
AMOUNT OF OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE ONE CAN PROCESS AURALLY OR SIMPLY UNDERSTANDING THE WORDS THAT ARE SPOKEN TO YOU
ABILITY TO INTERACT WITH NATIVE SPEAKERS USING VARIOUS COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES, CONVERSATION, NARRATION, INQUIRY FOR INFO, DIRECTING OTHERS, AND SO FORTH
ABILITY TO INTERACT IN DIFFERENT SOCIAL REGISTERS USING APPROPRIATE RULES AND POLITENESS FOR THE SITUATION
THE ABILITY TO MAKE USE OF LIMITED LINGUISTIC RESOURCES TO EXPRESS IDEAS AND TO UNDERSTAND INPUT (WHAT IS BEING SAID)
THE ABILITY TO USE THE CORRECT GRAMMATICAL FORM AND STRUCTURE TO EXPRESS A GIVEN MEANING
WAYS TO INCREASE COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT
Read often, start with picture book
Slow down (speak more slowly, not loudly)
Use shorter sentences
Post visual cues in the classroom
Use hands-on activities
Make frequent checks for comprehension
Use realia, photos, or actual objects
Display language and content objectives
Avoid idioms and slang
Use appropriate gestures
Scaffold with guided questions and practice
Activate prior knowledge
Remember, a smile goes a long way
the esl teacher understands how to promote student's literacy development in English.
students are divided into beginner, intermediate, advanced, and advanced high (usually upper grades) levels
Accuracy in reading
measured by assessing student's oral reading mistakes in using word analysis knowledge for decoding those words they do not know
sounding out/ phonics- extremely important to teach regularly in the classroom
done often by determining if a student comprehends enough to be able to read with feeling and expression
instructional delivery practices for comprehension
pre teaching key vocabulary
applying familiar concepts from student's cultural backgrounds
applying prior learning experiences to new learning
using hands on (contextualized) and other experimental learning strategies (props, models, gestures, etc)
using realia (real life examples) media, and other visual supports to introduce and/ or reinforce concepts
using technology to provide enriching experiences
cognitive-academic language proficiency skills
1. observing a problem or road block that hinders a child's advancement in some way
2. planning for a solution that may include a new curriculum, new strategy, etc
3. applying treatment
evaluating the results to determine the amount of success (or lack of)
5. beginning the cycle again, if needed
deciding which program best serves ELLS (bilingual, ESL, dual language) and being able to make recommendations accordingly
very little ability to understand spoken English in very simple conversations. Vocabulary in English is a struggle and the speaker often remains silent when failing to comprehend. Through carefully listening ELLS begin to expand vocabularies and to evaluate and analyze spoken English for a variety of situations and purposes.
ELLS produce spoken English with increasing accuracy and fluency to convey appropriate meanings. They can comprehend simple and high-frequency spoken English in both academic and social contexts. This includes simple conversations, discussions, directions,etc. but normally require ESL techniques for unfamiliar topics. They may ask the speaker to slow down, repeat, or rephrase because they have the ability to seek clarification when they do not understand.
ELLS can comprehend grade- level spoken English in both academic and social contexts with more advanced directions, conversations, and discussions. They are able to create, clarify, critique, and evaluate ideas and responses. They need time to process and ESL techniques for support to comprehend some details and non-modified for ELLS information. They may occasionally as the speaker to repeat or rephrase.
advanced high level
ELLS understand with very minimal support and with little need for processing time or ESL support except for complex academics or when specialized language is used. They are comparable to native speakers in social and most instructional contexts.
evaluates student achievement for accountability and is measured after students have ample time to demonstrate mastery of intended objectives. Ex: Standardized tests, TAKS test, benchmark testing
done orally or through observations as new material is covered in order to readjust instruction as the teacher determines that a lesson is too advanced or too easy for students while monitoring the flow of learning. Includes mastery checklists, observations, conversations, informal inventories, daily assignments, homework, projects, data collected from others besides the ESL teacher
skills mirror real life tasks such as multimedia presentations, keeping a checkbook, deleivering a speech in public, following directions for baking a recipe, etc.
helps students self assess by reflecting on previous learning and choosing artifacts that demonstrate intended learning outcomes, students are given a sense of pride in their accomplishments directed towards improvement of learned skills.