Social Psychology Chapter 6: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

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Discrimination can be based on many different factors, such as,...

age, group membership, gender, occupation, religion, marital status, etc.

Prejudice

Negative emotional responses based on group membership.

Prejudice based on group membership is...

perceived and responded to in different ways; some types are even seen as legitimate.

Stereotypes

Beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are believed to possess. Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information.

Discrimination

Differential (usually negative) behaviors directed toward members of different social groups.

Risk Averse (Prospect Theory)

We weigh possible losses more heavily, than potential gains. As a result, we respond more negatively to changes that are framed as potential losses than positively to changes that are framed as potential gains.

When change is seen as a potential loss for the more privileged...

they are more resistant to change, because they see this "change" as a loss for them or their group.

Social groups perceptions about change vary...

greatly. When equality is framed for a loss for Caucasians they perceive that more progress has already occurred, and show less support for affirmative action.

Gender Stereotypes

Stereotypes concerning the traits possessed by females and males, that distinguishes these two groups from each other.

Women are perceived as being...

high on "warmth," but low on "competence"; while the opposite is applied to men.

Glass Ceiling

Barriers based on attitudinal or organizational bias that prevent qualified females from obtaining advance level positions in the workforce.

Many businesses follow the motto of...

"think manager, think men."

Both men and women show a greater...

respect for men in the workforce; particularly when dealing with those in positions of authority.

Respect

Being seen positively and having worth.

Tokenism

When a single member of a minority group is present in an office, workplace, or classroom and is seen as a representative of that minority group rather than as an individual.

Making an attribution to discrimination is particularly...

painful for disadvantaged group members. Claiming that one is the victim of discrimination can cause both in and out group members to possess negative feeling towards the "oppressed."

Shifting Standards

When we use one group as the standard but shift to another group as the comparison standard when judging members of a different group.

Stereotypes can influence behavior....

even when objective, rather then shifting standards, are used. Women in particular fall victim to this type of discrimination.

Subtype

A subset of a group that is not consistent with the stereotype of the group as a whole.

Singlism

Discrimination against people who are single. Most singles accept this, and even engage in it themselves, largely because they are unaware or believe that this type of discrimination is acceptable.

Stereotyping leads us to believe in the...

typical stereotype itself, even when contradictory evidence is present.

People in positions of power often....

stereotype those of a lower position. While people in lower social positions individuate those in positions of power.

Stereotypes are cognitively....

efficient, but also motivational. We often stereotype when it serves our own groups interests.

Essence

Generally a biologically based trait or feature used to distinguish one group from another.

Minimal Groups

When we are categorized into different groups based on some "minimal" criteria we tend to favor others who are categorized in the same group as ourselves compared to those categorized as members of a different group.

Incidental Feelings

Those feelings induced separately or before a target is encountered; as a result, those feelings are irrelevant to the group being judged but can still affect judgments of the target.

Implicit Associations

Links between group membership and trait associations or evaluations that the perceiver may be unaware of. They can be activated automatically based on the group membership of a target.

Threat

It primarily concerns fear that our group's interests will be undermined or our self-esteem jeopardized.

Prejudice is based on...

emotional responses to different groups, coupled with the fear projected onto that specific group.

Realistic Conflict Theory

The view that prejudice stems from direct competitions between various social groups over a finite number of resources.

Superordinate Goals

Goals that can only be achieved when different groups work together.

Social Identity Theory

In this context, Social Identity Theory concerns the human predisposition to dividing the world into competing "us" versus "them" groups.

Modern Racism

More subtle beliefs than blatant feelings of superiority. It primarily deals with Caucasians believing minorities are seeking and receiving more benefits then they deserve.

Bona fide pipeline

A technique that uses priming to measure implicit racial attitudes.

Collective Guilt

The emotion that can be experienced when we are confronted with the harmful actions done by our in-group against an out-group. It is most likely to be experienced when the harmful actions are seen as illegitimate.

Social Learning View (of prejudice)

The view prejudice is acquired through direct and vicarious experiences in much the same manner as other attitudes.

Contact Hypothesis

The idea that stereotypes and prejudice toward a group will diminish as contact with the group increases.

Social Psychologists believe that prejudice...

is not inevitable, and that it can be reduced in various ways.

Recategorization

A means of reducing prejudice by shifting the categories of "us" and "them" so that the two groups are no longer distinct entities.

Common In-Group Identity Model

A theory suggesting that to the extent individuals in different groups view themselves as members of a single social entity, intergroup bias will be reduced.

Collective guilt and emotional charged guilt elicited...

in egalitarian minded people can also helped to reduce prejudice.

Prejudice can also be reduced via...

cognitive means. By teaching people to think differently about their associations; e.g. internally saying, "no," to prejudicial associations.

Changing Normative values can also help to...

reduce prejudice. By convincing people that the normative value is tolerance, prejudice can be reduced.

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