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The axons of certain neurons are covered by a layer of fatty tissue that helps speed neural transmission. This tissue is:

the myelin sheath.

A neuron will generate action potentials more often when it:

receives more excitatory than inhibitory inputs.

Dendrites are branching extensions of:

neurons

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the:

threshold.

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as:

acetylcholine

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:

synaptic gaps.

A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers:

more frequent neural impulses.

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter:

dopamine.

An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.

GABA

An axon transmits messages ________ the cell body and a dendrite transmits messages ________ the cell body.

away from; toward

Parkinson's disease involves:

the death of nerve cells that produce a vital neurotransmitter.

A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):

agonist

Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of:

acetylcholine

The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be:

decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is most likely to be found:

at the junction between motor neurons and muscle fibers.

The central nervous system consists of:

the brain and the spinal cord.

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems.

peripheral

Your brother has been taking prescription medicine and experiencing a number of unpleasant side effects, including unusually rapid heartbeat and excessive perspiration. It is likely that the medicine is exaggerating activity in the:

sympathetic nervous system.

The autonomic nervous system most directly controls:

bladder contractions.

The technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer images of structures within the brain is called:

MRI

Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulating moral judgments?

frontal lobes

The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

frontal

The sense of hearing is to the ________ lobes as the sense of touch is to the ________ lobes.

temporal; parietal

Beginning at the front of the brain and moving toward the back of the head, then down the skull and back around to the front, which of the following is the correct order of the cortical regions?

frontal lobe; parietal lobe; occipital lobe; temporal lobe

In a clinical trial of neural prosthetics with paralyzed humans, a 25-year-old man constructed shapes on a computer screen by activating neurons in his:

motor cortex.

Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in humano patients in order to reduce:

epileptic seizures.

The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in:

children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.

The ________ hemisphere typically excels in making subtle linguistic inferences and the ________ hemisphere typically excels in making quick, literal interpretations of language.

right; left

Which of the following is typically controlled by the left hemisphere?

word recognition

Anton is applying for a technician's job with a neurosurgeon. In trying to impress his potential employer with his knowledge of the brain, he says, "After my father's stroke I knew immediately that the blood clot had affected his left cerebral hemisphere because he no longer recognized a picture of his friend." Should Anton be hired?

No. The right hemisphere, not the left, specializes in picture recognition.

Deaf people who use sign language typically:

process language in their left cerebral hemisphere.

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the:

cerebellum.

The brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the:

hypothalamus.

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories?

hippocampus

Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the:

hypothalamus.

After suffering an accidental brain injury, Kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:

cerebellum

A doughnut-shaped cluster of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the:

limbic system.

The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe.

temporal

Cortical areas that are not primarily concerned with sensory, motor, or language functions are:

called association areas.

Raccoons have much more precise control of their paws than dogs. You would expect that raccoons have more cortical space dedicated to "paw control" in the ________of their brains.

frontal lobes

In order to pinpoint the location of a tumor, a neurosurgeon electrically stimulated parts of the patient's sensory cortex. If the patient was conscious during the procedure, which of the following was probably experienced?

a sense of having the skin touched

The sense of hearing is to the ________ lobes as the sense of touch is to the ________ lobes.

temporal; parietal

Research has found that the amount of representation in the motor cortex reflects the:

degree of precise control required by each of the parts.

Which part of your brain receives information as to whether you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

The visual cortex is located in the:

occipital lobe.

A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when his face was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of:

brain plasticity.

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to:

solve arithmetic problems.

A split-brain patient has a picture of a knife flashed to her left hemisphere and that of a fork to her right hemisphere. She will be able to:

identify the fork using her left hand.

Deaf people who use sign language typically:

process language in their left cerebral hemisphere.

Which of the following is typically controlled by the right hemisphere?

perceptual tasks

Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the:

limbic system.

After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty:

playing his guitar.

Since Malcolm has been taking a drug prescribed by his doctor, he no longer enjoys the little pleasures of life, such as eating and drinking. His doctor explains that this is because the drug:

inhibits release of dopamine.

If Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into the:

hypothalamus

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories?

hippocampus

A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of:

sexual motivation.

The most extensive regions of the brain, which enable learning and memory, are called the:

association areas.

The increasing complexity of animals' behavior is accompanied by an:

increase in the amount of association area.

The visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates:

plasticity

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of:

touch

A strong stimulus can increase the:

number of times the neuron fires.

Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your:

cerebral cortex.

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of:

visual perception.

Dopamine injections have proven ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease because dopamine:

fails to pass through the bloodstream into the brain.

The experience of auditory hallucinations by people with schizophrenia is most closely linked with the activation of areas in their:

temporal lobes.

Which part of your brain receives information as to whether you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

Damage to ________ will usually cause a person to lose the ability to comprehend language.

Wernicke's area

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to muscles in your hands by the ________ nervous system.

peripheral

You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the:

sympathetic nervous system.

After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heartbeat slowed. These physical reactions were most directly regulated by his:

parasympathetic nervous system.

Following massive damage to his frontal lobes, Phineas Gage was most strikingly debilitated by:

irritability

In order to monitor electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of a(n):

EEG

Botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):

ACh antagonist.

A synapse is a(n):

junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.

The myelin sheath that is on some neurons:

increases the speed of neural transmission.

Dopamine injections have proven ineffective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease because dopamine:

fails to pass through the bloodstream into the brain.

Following a nail gun wound to his head, Jack became more uninhibited, irritable, dishonest, and profane. It is likely that his personality change was the result of injury to his:

frontal lobe.

The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain:

plasticity

The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

frontal

Following Jayshree's near-fatal car accident, her physician noticed that the pupillary reflex of her eyes was abnormal. This may indicate that Jayshree's ________ was damaged in the accident.

autonomic nervous system

The peripheral nervous system consists of:

sensory and motor neurons.

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:

action potential.

The function of dendrites is to:

receive incoming signals from other neurons.

A strong stimulus can increase the:

number of times the neuron fires.

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the:

threshold.

Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the:

axon.

Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:

synaptic gaps.

José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of:

endorphins.

Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:

endorphins.

I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. What am I?

dopamine

The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to:

mimic a particular neurotransmitter.

I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. What am I?

dopamine

The effect of a drug that is an agonist is to:

mimic a particular neurotransmitter.

I am a relatively fast-acting chemical messenger that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. What am I?

serotonin

Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as a(n):

ACh antagonist.

A drug that blocks the reuptake of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n):

agonist.

In order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

sensory neurons

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls glandular activity and the muscles of internal organs is called the:

autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.

peripheral

Which of the following would be most useful for detecting the brain areas that are most active as a person performs mathematical calculations?

a PET scan

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n):

myelin sheath.

Depressed mood states are linked to ________ levels of serotonin and ________ levels of norepinephrine.

low; low

The effect of a drug that is an antagonist is to:

block a particular neurotransmitter.

The pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to the fact that:

under the influence of heroin the brain ceases production of endorphins

Motor neurons transmit signals to:

glands.

Sensory neurons are located in the:

peripheral nervous system.

Voluntary movements, such as writing with a pencil, are directed by the:

somatic nervous system

Your brother has been taking prescription medicine and experiencing a number of unpleasant side effects, including unusually rapid heartbeat and excessive perspiration. It is likely that the medicine is exaggerating activity in the:

sympathetic nervous system.

In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n):

PET scan.

The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the:

axon

Jason's painful withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of:

endorphins.

The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be:

decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.

Information is carried from the central nervous system to the body's tissues by:

motor neurons.

The brain research technique that involves monitoring the brain's usage of glucose is called (in abbreviated form) the:

PET scan

If a picture of a comb is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a right-handed splitbrain patient, she would most likely be able to

use her left hand to draw a picture of the comb.

The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere best illustrates:

lateralization

Research with split-brain patients suggests that the ________ typically constructs the theories people offer to explain their own behaviors

left cerebral hemisphere

An experimenter flashes the word FLYTRAP onto a screen facing a split-brain patient so that FLY projects to her right hemisphere and TRAP to her left hemisphere. When asked what she saw, the patient will:

say she saw TRAP.

To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's:

amygdala

A scientist from another planet wishes to study the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion and memory. You recommend that the scientist study the

limbic system of a dog.

Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with reward centers in the

limbic system.

The regions of the parietal lobes that are involved in mathematical and spatial reasoning are known as

association areas

An axon is:

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is:

an all-or-none response.

Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of:

synaptic gaps.

Endorphins are:

neurotransmitters.

The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by flooding synapses with:

ACh.

Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an:

oversupply of glutamate.

A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is called a(n):

agonist.

In stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system ________ blood sugar levels and ________ the pupils of the eyes.

raises; dilates

Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?

frontal

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

seeing; hearing

A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex.

frontal

Dr. Johnson briefly flashed a picture of a key in the right visual field of a split-brain patient. The patient could probably:

verbally report that a key was seen.

The limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the:

hypothalamus.

Though there is no single "control center" for emotions, their regulation is primarily attributed to the brain region known as the:

limbic system.

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