overproduction of parathormone by 1 of the 4 parathyroid glands
usually due to tumor or idiopathic hyperplasia. it causes hypercalcimia.
Hyperparathyroidism signs and symptoms
calcium is pulled from the bones leads to weakness and fracture. kidney stones due to urinary system (influenced by parathormone) retains calcium further increasing blood calcium levels. digestive system increases absorption of calcium leading to abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation. increase calcium also leads to hyperactivity of cardiac muscle causing arrhythmias.
blood testing of parathormone levels
directed at cause. removal of tumor or parathyroid glands maybe needed. only half of one parathyroid gland is needed to maintain normal levels. Diuretics to increase urine output (force calcium out) and limit dietary intake. Prognosis is good with treatment. however with severe cases cardiac arrest can occur.
no known prevention
decrease in secretion of parathormone leading to hypocalcemia.
usually due to surgical removal of all parathyroid glands or thyroid.
Hypoparathyroidism signs and symptoms
hypocalcemia causing tetany affecting face and hands.
chvosteks and trousseaus sign. blood test shows decrease calcium and decrease parathormone, x-ray for bone density.
treat with calcium and vitamin D, which controls absorption of calcium in GI tract, will cure the problem
no known prevention.
Cushings syndrome description
over production of cortisol (glucocorticoid)
Cushings syndrome etiology
may be caused by tumor on pituitary or adrenal cortex. also prolonged administration of large dose of glucocorticoids (cortisone).
Cushings syndrome signs and symptoms
moon face, fatigue, buffalohump, weakness, poor wound healing, round abdomen with pencil thin arms and legs, HTN, and striae (stretch marks) on the skin.
Cushings syndrome diagnosis
blood test measuring cortisol and MRI to view tumors
Cushings syndrome treatment
surgical removal of tumors or adrenal cortex, then lifetime hormone replacement, carefully monitoring for cushings.
Cushings syndrome prevention
may be prevented by early detection and treatment of associated symptoms.