Chapter 8 Blanks

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Glycerol and three fatty acids

Fats and oils are made from two kinds of molecules. What are they?

Glycerol

___ is a type of alcohol with a hydroxyl group on each of its three carbons

Fatty Acid

A long hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group

Energy storage, cell membrane development, and serving as a component of hormones and vitamins in the body

Three major purposes of lipids

saturated, unsaturated

Fatty acids are either ___ or ___

Linoleic, gamma-linolenic

Some fatty acids are not synthesized by mammals yet they are essential fatty acids. Which include_____ and ____

Arachidonic acid

_____ can be synthesized by mammals only from linoleic acid. It is not an essential fatty acid.

polyunsaturated

Palm oil is low in ___ fatty acids and high in palmitic acid.

Simple

If all fatty acids are the same it is a ___ triacylglycerol.

Mixed

If one or more fatty acids are different, it is know as a ____ triacylglycerol

reduced, 38, 17

Triacylglycerols are a major source of energy for many organisms. They are rich in highly ___ carbons and complete oxidation of one gram of triacylglycerol yields about ___ kJ, whereas proteins and carbohydrates yield about ____ kJ per gram.

1,2 diacylglycerol

In glycerophospholipids a _____ has a phospho group esterphied at carbon 3

phosphatidic acid

Glycerol phopholipids are named as derivatives of the parent compound _____ according to the polar alcohol in the head group

Carbon 1

Etherglyceropholipids have an ether rather than ester linkage at ___ of glycerol.

PAF

An example of an etherglyceropholipid is ___.

Sphingolipids

An 18 carbon amino alcohol forms the backbone of _____.

Sphingomyelin

____ is formed when phosphoryl choline or phosphorylethanolamine are linked to 1 hydroxyl group of ceramide.

Glycosphingolipids

___ are ceramides with one or more sugars in beta-glycosidic linkage at the 1 hydroxyl group.

Cerebrosides

Glycosphingolipids with one sugar are ____

Gangliosides

Ceramides with three or more sugars, one of which is a sialic acid, are ____

insoluble

Waxes are ___ in water due to their mostly hydrocarbon composition.

Isoprene

Terpenes are a class of lipids formed from combinations of two or more of ___.

Monoturpenes

___ consist of two isoprene units.

Sesquiterpenes

___ consist of three isoprenes.

Diterpenes

___ consist of 4 isporene units.

cholesterol

The most common steroid in animals is ___

Steroids

Common structural motif is 3 fused 6 member rings and one 5 member ring.

Weakly polar

Cholesterol is ___ due to the hydroxyl group of carbon 3.

7-dehydrocholesterol

Vitamin D3 is generated from the skin of animals when light is absorbed by a precursor molecule _____.

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