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What characterizes an Ecdysozoan?

They all grow by molting.

What is a key trait of most crustaceans?

cephalothorax

Why do crustaceans have a carapace?

It protects the cephalothorax.

What is the synapomorphy of the Ecdysozoa + Lophotrochozoa clade?

protostome development

Arthropods possess _____.

tagmata

Which character would allow you to identify that something was an Echinoderm and not a Chordate?

radial symmetry

Having a placenta and showing viviparity are most likely mechanisms for increasing _____.

parental care and offspring survival

Which chordate group lacks a post-anal tail and a notochord as adults?

tunicates

True or False? All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.

False

True or False? Exoskeleton is an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?

False

True or false? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well-developed head regions.

False

Which characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?

Their body plan

True or false? The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.

True

Which characteristics define a chordate?

The presence of four specific morphological traits

Which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?

Pharyngeal gill slit

Except for modern ethnic groups in ______, the majority of humans appear to have traces of Neanderthal DNA in their genome.

Africa

Research confirms that Neanderthal DNA makes up about ____ of the modern human genome.

4%

DNA was isolated from Neanderthal ____ and sequenced so that it could be compared to modern human DNA.

bone fragments

Mating is believed to have taken place between modern humans and Neanderthals in ____ about 70,000 years ago.

the Middle East

The Neanderthal DNA discovered in Homo sapiens is best explained by ____.

gene flow

What structure in a placental developing organism is greatly reduced (but not absent) as compared to an amniotic egg?

Yolk sac

How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?

Connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix.

Which of these describes loose connective tissue?

It is a loose weave of fibers that functions as a packing material.

Cartilage is found _____.

at the ends of bones such as the femur

_____ is the connective tissue specialized for transport.

Blood

What type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical forces?

stratified epithelium

What type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?

simple columnar epithelium

Which of these tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?

simple squamous epithelium

What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?

simple cuboidal cells

What type of muscle is responsible for contractions of the digestive tract and arteries?

smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _____ fibers.

branched

_____ muscle is attached to bones.

Skeletal

When comparing a mouse to an elephant, the mouse has a _____ surface area to volume ratio and a _____ mass-specific basal metabolic rate.

higher; higher

Term the describes the mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?

Regulatory homeostasis.

True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.

True

Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?

Integrator

Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?

Sensor

Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?

Shivering

The best definition of an endotherm is an animal that _____.

produces adequate heat to warm its own tissues

How does a selectively permeable membrane affect diffusion?

Only some molecules move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.

Osmoregulation of all marine fishes (cartilaginous and bony) is accomplished primarily with the use of _____.

Na+/K+ ATPase pumps

Why is uric acid advantageous for nitrogenous waste excretion?

Uric acid is insoluble in water.

The movement of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule is referred to as _____.

filtration

The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.

secretion

As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.

more ... water

The most abundant solute in urine is _____.

urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)

Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.

active transport

What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron.

What is the correct sequence of flow through the nephron?

Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting duct

True or false? The kidneys are paired organs that regulate water and electrolyte balance in terrestrial vertebrates.

True

What is the driving force for the filtration of blood by the renal corpuscle?

Higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the surrounding Bowman's capsule.

Which regions of the nephron function independently of hormonal control for the most part?

Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle.

In which region of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created?

Loop of Henle.

Which of the following statements best describes the actions of the hormone ADH on the nephron?

ADH causes the collecting duct to increase water reabsorption by the surrounding tissue under conditions of dehydration.

Why does drinking caffeinated soda make one need to urinate more frequently?

Caffeine inhibits sodium ion reabsorption in the proximal tubule.

Which feature is common to gills, lungs, and tracheae?

large surface area

The majority of carbon dioxide is carried in blood as _____.

bicarbonate dissolved in plasma

Which of the following does NOT correctly represent blood flow through the heart?

from the right ventricle to the left ventricle

A neuron sends a signal toward another neuron along its _____.

Axon

Action potentials are only propagated "downstream" (away from the cell body) because _____.

sodium channels upstream are refractory to action potentials

Neurotransmitters are released from neurons in response to the increase in intracellular concentration of what ion?

calcium

Which of the following types of sensory receptors would sense changes in pressure?

mechanoreceptors

Which of the following is the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction?

acetylcholine

Why might someone with the common cold complain that food tastes bland?

A congested nose prevents the smell of food.

The main hormone released in response to short-term stress is _____, and to long-term stress is _____.

epinephrine; cortisol

Why are hormones better suited for regulating homeostasis rather than electrical signals alone?

Hormones are long lived and can spread throughout the body.

Negative feedback is defined as _____.

the product of a process inhibits its production

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