Chapter 5: Gastrointestinal System

32 terms by ash10rombough

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key terms

alcoholic gastritis

inflammation of the stomach lining caused by alcohol

bacterial (phlegmonous) gastritis

inflammation of the stomach lining caused by a bacterial infection

chronic atrophic gastritis

refers to severe mucosal atrophy that causes thinning and a relative absence of mucosal folds, with the fundus or entire stomach having a bald appearance

chyme

gastric contents that have become mixed with hydrochloric acid and the proteolytic enzyme pepsin, resulting in a milky white product

colonic ileus

selective or disproportionate gaseous distention of the large bowel without an obstruction

congenital tracheoesophageal (TE) fistulas

result from the failure of a satisfactory esophageal lumen to develop completely separate from the trachea

constipation

extra water is absorbed from the fecal mass to produce a hardened stool

corrosive gastritis

inflammation of the stomach caused by corrosive agents

deglutition

swallowing

diarrhea

results from the increased motility of the small bowel, which floods the colon with an excessive amount of water that cannot be completely absorbed

diarrheogenic islet cell tumors

produce the WDHA syndrome

emulsifier

substance that acts like soap by dispersing the fat into very small droplets that permit it to mix with water

epiphrenic diverticula

outpouching found in the distal 10 cm of the esophagus

glycogen

excess glucose absorbed is stored as...

hepatitis

inflammatory disease of the liver

infectious gastritis

inflammation of the stomach lining caused by a microorganism

infiltrating

spreading into surrounding tissue

insulinoma

hormone-secreting neoplasm most frequenly in the tail of the pancreas, usually benign

irritable bowel syndrome

refers to several conditions that have an alteration in intestinal motility

localized ileus

isolated distended loop of small or large bowel

malabsorption disorder

multitude of conditions in which there is defective absorption in the small bowel

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

subsequent inflammation of the distal esophagus due to a laceration associated with bleeding and mediastinal penetration caused by severe retching and vomiting

mastication

chewing

pancreatitis

an inflammatory process in which protein and lipid-digesting enzymes become activated within the pancreas and begin to digest the organ itself

peristalsis

wormlike movement by which the alimentary canal or other tubular organ propels its contents

polypoid

resembling a polyp

pyloric stenosis

also known as infantile hypertrophic _____ ______ (IHPS), occurs when the two muscular layers of the pylorus become hyperplastic and hypertrophic

traction

process of placing tension between two structures

ulceration

destruction of tissue creating an opening within a structure

ulcerogenic islet cell tumors (gastrinomas)

tumor found in pancreas and duodenum that is associated with peptic ulcers

villi

finger-like projections of the small bowel to increase the inner surface area

Zenker's diverticula

outpouching that arises from the posterior wall of the upper esophagus

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