Chapter 14 - Databases and Database Management Systems

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Database

A collection of related data that is stored in a manner enabling information to be retrieved as needed; in a relational database, a collection of related tables.

Database management system (DBMS)

A type of software program used to create, maintain, and access databases.

Table

In a relational database, a collection of related records or rows.

Field

A single category of data to be stored in a database, such as customer names or employee telephone numbers. Also called a column.

Column

A field in a database.

Record

A collection of related fields in a database. Also called a row.

Row

A collection of related fields located in a single table in a database.

Primary key

A specific field in a database table that uniquely identifies the records in that table.

Entity

Something (such as a person, object, or event) that is important to a business or organization; typically becomes a database table in a database system for that business or organization.

Attribute

A characteristic of an entity.

Data definition

The process of describing the properties of data that is to be included in a database table.

Data dictionary

The repository of all data definitions in a database.

Metadata

Data about data, such as the data contained in a data dictionary.

Data integrity

The accuracy of data.

Data validation

The process of ensuring that data entered into a database is valid (matches the data definition).

Data security

Protecting the data located in a database against destruction and misuse.

Data privacy

Protecting the privacy of the data located in a database.

Indexed organization

A method for organizing data on a storage medium or in a database that uses an index to specify the exact storage location.

Index

A small table containing a primary key and the location of the record belonging to that key; used to locate records in a database.

Direct organization

A method of arranging data on a storage medium that uses hashing to specify the exact storage location.

Single-user database system

A database located on a single computer and designed to be accessed by a single user.

Multiuser database system

A database designed to be accessed by multiple users.

Client-server data base system

A database system where the database is located on a server and accessed by client devices.

Centralized database system

A database system in which all of the data used by the system is located on a single computer.

Distributed database system

A database system in which the data used by the system is located on multiple computers tat ae connected via a network.

In-memory database (IMDB)

A database that stores all data in memory instead of on a hard drive.

Relational database management system (RDBMS)

A type of database system in which data is stored in tables related by common fields; the most widely used database model today.

Normalization

The process of evaluating and correcting the structure of a database table to minimize data redundancy.

Form

A formatted way of viewing and editing a table in a database.

Query

A request to see information from a database that matches specific criteria.

Structured query language (SQL)

A popular query language standard for information retrieval in relational databases.

Report

A formatted way of looking at information retrieved from a database table or the results of a query.

Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS)

A type of database system in which multiple types of data are stored as objects along with their related code.

Hybrid XML/relational database

A type of database system that can store and retrieve both XML data and relational data.

Multidimensional database (MDDB)

A type of database designed to be used with data warehousing.

Middleware

Software used to connect two otherwise separate applications, such as a Web server and a database management system.

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