Study of statistical changes in the human population
crude birth rate
Number of births per 1000 people per year in a population
crude death rate
Number of deaths per 1000 people per year in a population
Average number of years a newborn can expect to live
infant mortality rate
Number of infant deaths per 1000 live births, before they reach the age of 1 year.
total fertility rate
Number of children each woman will have in a lifetime.
replacement fertility rate
Number of offspring needed to replace their parents in a population. 2.1 per couple in humans.
Pollutants that are harmful in the form in which they are released
pollutants produced when substances mix with chemicals normally found in the atmosphere to form harmful ones
point source pollution
Pollutants that are released from a specific location in large quantities
non-point source pollution
Pollution from which no single source produces large quantities, but where numerous smaller sources can release a larger total pollution
a ground-level cloud that contains air pollutants, which typically forms over larger cities