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Layers of the Earth

crust, mantle, core

Rocks that make up the Earth

Igneous Rocks, Sedimentary Rocks, Metamorphic Rocks

Igneous Rocks

formed from cooling of molten rock, called lava.

Metamorphic Rocks

formed from older rocks under intense heat or pressure at depths beneath the earth's surface

Sedimentary Rocks

formed in layers contain plant and animal remains,

hydrosphere

oceans

Saltwater bodies

oceans and seas containing saltwater and saltwater ecosystems.

minerals found in saltwater

salt (sodium chloride), iron, phosphates, nitrates, magnesium

Freshwater bodies

lakes, streams, rivers, ponds, marshes.

shore

shoreline, Beaches, Sandbar, Spit, Bay, Lagoon, Barrier islands, Arches and stacks

shoreline

the boundary where the land meets the sea

Beaches

deposits of sand and other fragments of rock left along the shoreline boundary

Sandbar

water currents deposit sand and debris in deeper water, parallel to the shore, and build up

Spit

a narrow piece of land which forms along a curved shoreline

Bay

part of the coastline where the rock has been gradually eroded by a large body of water

Lagoon

a body of water cut off from the sea by a sandbar or reef.

Barrier islands

islands made from sand and debris deposited parallel to the shore

Arches and stacks

formations of resistant rock left standing after softer rock had been worn away (eroded) by

Continental shelf

underwater land at the edges of the continents

Continental slope

a steep slope running from the edge of the continental shelf down to the ocean floor

Abyssal plain

wide, flat area that makes up most of the ocean floor

Mid-oceanic ridges

mountain ranges on the ocean floor

Weathering

the breakdown of rock to form sediment.

Erosion

weathered particles are moved from one location to another.

five major oceans

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Artic and Antarctic

3 major types of clouds

Stratus, Cumulus, Cirrus

Stratus

smooth layers of low clouds

Cumulus

turret-shaped tops, flat bottoms

Cirrus

feather-like clouds made of ice crystals

Climate

long-range weather patterns

Weather

short-term conditions of the atmosphere

6 major biomes on land:

rainforest, desert, grassland,deciduous forest, boreal forest, tundra

"Big Bang" Theory

named in 1950 by British scientist, Fred Hoyle

Paleontology

the science studying former life through fossils

Geologic time scale

sequence of events in the Earth's history

Paleozoic Era

543 -248 million years ago

Mesozoic era

248 - 65 million years ago

Cenozoic era

65 million years ago to present

Galaxy

a system of stars, gases, and dust all held together as a group by gravity

Milky Way

Earth's galaxy

Solar system

consists of a star, a group of planets and their satellites

9 planets

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Comets

large clumps of ice, dust and frozen gases that travel around the Sun in long elliptical orbits

Meteoroids

very small asteroids which orbit the Sun.

Meteors

"shooting stars" or "falling stars".

Cells

basic unit of structure

Nucleus

the "brain" of the cell; houses the codes that control cell activities; often centrally located

ER - (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

tubes where cell substances are made

Chromosomes

rod-shaped bodies contained within the nucleus which carry the genetic code for reproduction

Cell Membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell; outer "wall."

Nuclear membrane

controls the movement of materials in and out of the nucleus; inner "wall."

Golgi bodies

assemble, release, and store chemicals

Ribosomes

make proteins

Cytoplasm

substance which holds all other parts in suspension within the cell

Mitochondria

the "powerhouse" of the cell; the site of energy production and release

Lyosomes

eat up waste materials

Vacuoles

store water

Cell wall

gives shape and support to plant cells

Chloroplasts

contain chlorophyll which traps sunlight to help make food via photosynthesis

Taxonomy

the science of classifying living things

Phototropism

growth of a plant's stem towards the sunlight

Geotropism

is the growth of roots downwards, towards gravity

Roots

anchor plants in the ground and bring in minerals and water from the soil

Stems

hold up the rest of the plant, and have tubes that carry water and food between the leaves and the roots

Leaves

part of the plant where most of the food is made

Diffusion

movement of atoms or molecules in a solution or gas

Transpiration

the evaporation of water from plants

Respiration

plants use oxygen to break down sugar to release energy

Organ Systems

group of organs that work together to carry out a particular function

Ligaments

connective tissues that bind bones or cartilage together.

Tendons

are connective tissue that binds muscles to bones

Cartilage

a tough, elastic tissue that can withstand pressure

Muscles

cells and tissues that allow movement of an organ or body part

Skeletal muscle

attached to bones and allows voluntary (controlled by conscious thought) movement of limbs

Smooth muscle

found in internal organs and aids in involuntary (controlled by autonomic nervous system) movement in respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems

Cardiac muscle

forms powerful walls of the heart; controlled by autonomic nervous system

Cornea

transparent thin outer covering of the eye that protects the iris and pupil

Pupil

small hole in the center of the eye, through which light enters

Iris

the colored muscles in the eye

Lens

bends the rays of light to focus them on the retina

Retina

lines the back wall of the eye and contains rods and cones, which are light-sensitive receptor cells

Optic nerve

carries the impulses to the brain, where they are interpreted.

Heart

strong muscle which pumps blood to the lungs, organs, tissues and cells

Aorta

is the main artery leaving the heart

Carotid artery

supplies blood to the brain

Superior vena cava

the largest vein emptying into the heart

Capillaries

smallest vessels in the body where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged

Digestion

breaking down of food

Reproduction

how organisms make new organisms

Asexual reproduction

only one parent is needed to reproduce

Budding

reproduce by growing a new organism out of a bud off a parent

Fragmentation

animal divides itself and each piece grows the missing parts and becomes a full offspring

Parthenogenesis

production of offspring from eggs which do not require fertilization by a "partner."

Trait

characteristic, such as eye color or height, which is coded for by genes contained on chromosomes

Heredity

passing on of traits from parents to offspring

Dominant traits

traits people can see that you have; a dominant gene overpowers a recessive gene

Recessive traits

traits you may have, but people cannot see because they are not expressed

Genes

the coded instructions in DNA; the "genetic code;" they are the basic units of inheritance

Chromosomes

thread-like structures in the nucleus of every cell that carry genetic codes for the cell's activity

Mitosis

2-step process by which all body cells of multi-cellular organisms multiply

Anemia

lack of red blood cells in the blood

Hemophilia

lack of platelets, which help the blood to clot

Goiter

lack of iodine and the over-activity of the thyroid gland

Rickets

lack of vitamin D.

Down's Syndrome

genetic error in which an extra chromosome (#21) is passed on

Human Life cycle

infancy, childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

Homeostasis

tendency of a living organism towards balance and equilibrium

Endocrine system

glands which secrete hormones directly into the blood stream

Pituitary gland

small gland attached to the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth, metabolism, and reproduction

Pancreas

gland behind the stomach that functions in both the endocrine and digestive system

Thyroid gland

large gland in the front of the neck, it secretes hormones which regulate growth and metabolism

Migration

the movement by animals over long distances in order to reproduce, mate, raise young, or find food

Hibernation

a long period of rest or inactivity by an animal, usually in the winter, to conserve energy

Reflex behavior

automatic response to a stimulus

Instinctive behavior

inborn responses to stimuli

Unity

state or quality of being in accord; harmony

Adaptation

series of changes or characteristics that are made by an animal which enable it to survive in its environment

Evolution

1. chemical evolution -organic molecules were first formed. 2. development of single-celled organisms- capable of asexual reproduction. 3. development of complex, multi-cellular organisms - capable of sexual reproduction.

Theory of "Natural Selection."

theory that the earth's species have changed and diversified over time. first described by Charles Darwin. expression "survival of the fittest" was used to describe this process in the 19 century

Population

number of individuals of one species in a community.

Community

populations of plants and animals living together in a particular habitat

Ecosystems

describes a community, its habitat, and all of the relationships within that habitat.

Ecology

the study of the relationships between organisms and their habitat

Food chain

one organism in an ecosystem consumes another organism

Green plants

producers because they make their own food

Herbivores

animals that eat green plants, are primary consumers

Carnivores

animals that eat meat

Decomposers

break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem

Birth

main way new individuals join a population

Death

main way individuals leave a population

Immigration

individuals move into a population from elsewhere, thus increasing its size

Emigration

individuals move out of a population to elsewhere, thus decreasing its size

Matter

anything that has mass and takes up space

Solids

have a definite size and shape; particles are packed together tightly and are in a regular pattern

Liquids

have a definite size and volume, but no definite shape; particles are more active and farther apart than a solid

Gases

no definite size or shape; a gas will fill whatever space it occupies; particles move freely and are even farther apart from each other than a liquid

Mass

the amount of matter in an object; its "size"; all matter has mass and takes up space

Weight

the force of the Earth's gravity which pulls down on an object

Density

amount of mass packed into a given unit of volume; density is the relative "heaviness" of an object

Viscosity

the property of a liquid which describes how easily it pours

Freezing point

the temperature at which a liquid will become a solid.

Boiling point

temperature at which a liquid will become a gas

other physical properties of matter

Color, Hardness, Size, Shape and Odor

Sublimation

a change from a solid to a gas without going through a liquid state

Condensation

a change from a gaseous to a liquid state caused by lowering the temperature

Evaporation

a change from a liquid to a gaseous state caused when a liquid is heated to its boiling point

pH scale

a range of numbers that measure of the strength of an acid or base

Catalyst

a substance which hastens a chemical reaction without itself undergoing chemical change

Mixture

contains 2 or more different substances that have not undergone a chemical reaction

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