Treaty of Tordesillas
the agreement, signed by Spain and Portugal in 1494, that moved the line separating Spanish and Portuguese claims to territory in the non-Christian world, giving Spain most of the western hemisphere.
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and conquered land for Spain
a system of bonded labor in which Indians were assigned to Spanish plantation and mine owners in exchange for a tax payment and an agreement to "civilize" and convert them to Catholicism.
Indian rebellion against Spanish authority in 1680 led by Pope; succeeded in driving the Spanish out of New Mexico for nearly a decade.
Spain's King Philip launched an armada, or a fleet of warships, to attack England. British defense ships defeated it, and the expected conquest of England was ruined. This ended Spain's monopoly over New World colonization.
Established in 1587, the first English colony, called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
English Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681
French explorer who, by navigating the St. Lawrence River in 1634, gave France its primary claim to territories in the New World.
a British philosopher who was one of the most influential of the Enlightening thinkiers
church that King Henry VIII of England created so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases. Also called the Church of England.
people who left England for America to establish a purer church. Settled Plymouth Colony in 1620 and the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.
protestants who did not believe that the Church of England could be "purified" and hence chose to "separate from it." The Pilgrims were separatists.
a small group of separatists who left England in search of religious freedom and sailed to America on the Mayflower in 1620
an agreement drafted in 1620 when the Pilgrims reached America that granted political rights to all male colonists who would abide by the colony's laws
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
Joint Stock Company
a business financed through the sale of shares of stock to investors; the investors share in both the profits and losses from a risky venture.
English colony in which the king gave land to proprietors in exchange for a yearly payment
Puritan minister banished from Massachusetts for criticizing its religious rules and government policies; in 1635, he founded Providence, a community based on religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
direct Democratic style of government. Towns and cities grew around gathering places, and allowed mass participation in politics.
a religious leader banished from Massachusetts in 1637 because of her criticism of the colonial government and what were judged to be heretical beliefs.
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
a belief originating in Christian theology that faith alone, not obedience to religious law, is necessary for salvation
a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided
conflict in 1636 between the Pequot Indians inhabiting eastern Connecticut and the colonists of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut: the Indians were destroyed and driven from the area.
King Philip's War
sometimes called Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion, was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies
first permanent English settlement in mainland America, established in 1607 by the Virginia Company and named in honor of King James I.
Head Right System
the grant of 50 acres of land for each settler brought over to Virginia by a colonist
a joint stock corporation founded with a charter from King James I. It had the power to appoint the Council of Virginia, the Governor and other officials, and the responsibility to provide settlers, supplies, and ships for the venture. Enthusiasm started out strong and dwindled. Failed and revoked.
at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia was a period of forced starvation initiated by the Powhatan Confederacy to remove the English from Virginia. The campaign killed all but 60 of the 400 colonists during the winter of 1609-1610.
was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. The uprising was a protest against Native American raids on the frontier and against the Royal Governor of Virginia, William Berkeley, and his policies of favoring his own court
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
were adopted by the Connecticut Colony council on January 14, 1638. The orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns, setting its structure and powers.
is economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. Restrains imports and encourages exports.
married Pocahontas and started the planting of tobacco in Jamestown, making Virginia an economically successful colony.
Great Britain's policy in the early 1700s of not interfering in the American colonies' politics and economy as long as such neglect served British economic interests.
House of Burgesses
the elected lawmaking body of Virginia, established by the Virginia Company in 1618; the assembly first met in 1619.
first Lord Baltimore, founded Maryland (for his wife, Mary) as colony for Catholics (1634)
English philanthropist who established the clony of Georgia in 1732 as a refuge for debtors.
Maryland Act of Toleration
also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. Created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world.
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They were forced to surrender the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
compulsory service for a fixed period of time, usually from four to seven years, most often agreed to in exchange for passage to the colonies; a labor contract called an indenture spelled out the terms of the agreement.
First Great Awakening
a time of religious fervor during the 1730s and 1740s. The movement arose in reaction to the rise of skepticism and the waning of religious faith brought about by the Enlightenment. Protestant ministers held revivals throughout the English colonies in America, stressing the need for individuals to repent and urging a personal understanding of truth.
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
English evangelical preacher of the Great Awakening whose charismatic style attracted huge crowds during his preaching tours of colonies.
an Anglican cleric and Christian theologian. Wesley is largely credited, along with his brother Charles Wesley, as founding the Methodist movement which began when he took to open-air preaching
Governor William Berkeley
Virginia governor, friendly policies toward Indians; monopolized fur trade; suppressed rebellion by Bacon when he died
an uprising in late 17th century colonial New York, in which militia captain Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. Occurred in the midst of the Glorious Revolution.
the movement of Puritans from England to America in the 1630's, caused by political and religious unrest in England. Also, movement of about a half-million black people from the rural south to the urban North during World War I.
an agreement (1662) that gave partial membership in Puritan churches to the children of church members even if they had not had a "saving faith" experience.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
"City on a Hill"
Biblical ideal, invoked by John Winthrop, of a society governed by civil liberty (where people did only that which was just and good) that would be an example to the world.
Society of Friends
also known as Quakers, founded by Margaret Fell and George Fox, name came from shaking at the name of the Lord, rejected predestination and orginal sin, believed that all could achieve salvation, women held positions in the church
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Under the English Navigation Acts, those commodities that could be shipped only to England or other English colonies; originally included sugar, tobacco, cotton, and indigo
tribe whose chief, Metacom, known to the colonies as King Phillip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers
a form of Protestant church government in which the local congregation is independent and self-governing; in the colonies, the Puritans were Congregationalists.
one of the founders of Massachusetts Bay Colony and the colony's first governor.
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles.
a term used to describe the removal of James II from the English throne and the crowning of the Protestant monarchs, William and Mary.
the separatist who led the Pilgrims to America; he became the first governor of Plymouth Plantations.
Dominion of New England
a megacolony created in 1686 by James II that brought Massachusetts, Plymouth Plantations, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and New York under the control of one royal governor; William and Mary dissolved the Dominion when they came to the throne in 1689.
Sir Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England; suppressed the legislature, limited towns to a single annual meeting, and strictly enforced toleration of Angelicans and the Navigation Acts; hated by most colonists
A German immigrant and the leader of the New York dissidents (a group of farmers, mechanics, small traders and shop keepers) who had long accumulated grievances against Andros governor in New York. Important because he raised a militia and led an uprising in New York to oust Governor Nicholson much like the Bacon Rebellion in Virginia.
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)