Chapter 15 Musculoskeletal System

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The Language of Medicine Davi-Ellen Chabner 9thEd

acetabulum

rounded depression, or socket, in the pelvis that joins the femur (thigh bone), forming the hip joint

acromion

outward extension of the shoulder blade forming the point of the shoulder. it overlies the shoulder joint and articulates with the clavicle

articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage covering the bone in the joint space

bone

dense, hard connective tissue composing the skeleton. examples: long bones (femur), short bones (carpals), flat bones (scapula), and sesamoid bones (patella)

calcium

one of the mineral constituents of bone. calcium phosphate is the major calcium salt in bones

cancellous bone

spongy, porous, bone tissue in the inner part of a bone

cartilage

flexible, rubbery connective tissue. it is found in the immature skeleton, at the epiphyseal growth plate, and on joint surfaces

collagen

dense, connective tissue protein strands found in bone and other tissues

compact bone

hard, dense bone tissue, usually found around the outer portion of bones

condyle

knuckle-like process at the end of a bone near the joint

cranial bones

skull bones: ethmoid, frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and temporal

diaphysis

shaft, or mid-portion, of a long bone

disk (disc)

flat, round, plate-like structure. an intervertebral disk is a fibrocartilaginous substance between two vertebrae

epiphyseal plate

cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton

epiphysis

each end of a long bone; the area beyond the epiphyseal plate

facial bones

bones of the face: lacrimal, mandibular, maxillary, nasal, vomer, and zygomatic

fissure

narrow, slit-like opening in or between bones

fontanelle

soft spot (incomplete bone formation) between the skull bones of an infant

foramen

opening or passage in bones where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave. the foramen magnum is the opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes

fossa

shallow cavity in a bone

haversian canals

minute spaces filled with blood vessels; found in compact bone

malleolus

round process on both sides of the ankle joint. the lateral malleolus is part of the fibula, and the medial malleolus is art of the tibia

manubrium

upper portion of the sternum; articulates with the medial aspect of the clavicle

mastoid process

round projection on the temporal bone behind the ear

medullary cavity

central, hollowed-out area in the shaft of a long bone

metaphysis

flared portion of along bone, between the diaphysis (shaft) and the epiphyseal plate (in this term, meta- means between)

olecranon

large process on the proximal end of the ulna; the point of the flexed elbow

osseous tissue

bone tissue

ossification

process of bone formation

osteoblast

bone cell that helps form bony tissue

osteoclast

bone cell that absorbs and removes unwanted bony tissue

periosteum

membrane surrounding bones; rich in blood vessels and nerve tissue

phosphorus

mineral substance found in bones in combination with calcium

pubic symphysis

area of confluence (coming together) of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. they are joined (sym- together, -physis - to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk

red bone marrow

found in cancellous bone; site of hematopoiesis

ribs

twelve pairs of curved bones that form the chest wall. true ribs are the first 7 pairs; false ribs are pairs 8 to 10; floating ribs are pairs 11 and 12

sella turcica

depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located

sinus

hollow air cavity within a bone

styloid process

pole-like process extending downward from the temporal bone on each side of the skull

suture

immovable joint between bones, such as the skull (cranium)

temporomandibular joint

connection on either side of the head between the temporal bone of the skull and mandibular bone of the jaw

trabeculae

supporting bundles of bony fibers in cancellous (spongy) bone

trochanter

large process at the neck of the femur; attachment site for tendons of the hip musculature

tubercle

rounded, small process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons

tuberosity

rounded process on bone; attachment site for muscles and tendons

vertebra

individual segment of the spienn composed of the vertebral body, vertebral arch, spinous process, transverse process, and lamina, enclosing the neural canal

xiphoid process

lower, narrow portion of the sternum

yellow bone marrow

fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones

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