Peace of Augusburg
agreement where german princes were allowed to choose religion of their state
Emperor Charles V
The emperor who declared Martin Luther an outlaw of Germany and refused to protect him - issued the edict of worms
Posted on door of church, spreaded quickly, a list of ideas/complaints from Luther
Edict of Worms
Declared Luther an outlaw and heretic, no one should give him food or shelter, and books burned
A pardon that released sinner from doing penalty
Luther's followers, Christians who belonged to a non-catholic church
The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in history. Not only did it affect religious life in Europe, but also affected social, political, and economic institutions as well. The Reformation's leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin, both educated as priests for the Catholic Church. The Reformation was a protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church. The followers of Luther and Calvin became known as Protestants, because of their "protesting."
Causes of the Protestant Reformation
Church Corruption: By the 1500s the Catholic Church was the most wealthy and powerful institution in Europe. Many church leaders lived more like kings, than priests, and became increasingly involved in political matters. To raise money for these activities, the Church raised fees for services such as, marriage and baptism, and also began the sale of indulgences, which were letters of forgiveness for one's sins. This caused both anger and resentment across Europe, and many called for reforms to take place.
Martin Luther was a German monk who was concerned about the sale of indulgences and other corruptions in the church. In 1517, he wrote his 95 Theses, which were 95 arguments against the sale of indulgences. He posted these on the door of the Wittenberg church in protest. The Catholic Church ordered Luther to recant, or take back his theses, but he refused. The Church excommunicated him, and would have executed him had they been able to capture him. Luther's ideas spread quickly throughout the Germany and Scandinavia, mainly due to the new printing press. Luther's beliefs are what sparked the Reformation.
To take back what one has said; Luther was asked to recant his statements
Luther believed that Christians could only reach salvation through faith in god. He did not believe that the Pope or other priests had any special powers, including the forgiveness of sins. Luther's beliefs became the basis for the Protestant form of Christianity.
Effects of the Protestant Reformation
Luther's and Calvin's ideas spread across Europe quickly. This was due to unrest in the peasant population, inventions like the printing press, and the support of rulers wishing to free themselves from Catholic control. Religious unity in Europe was lost, which resulted in many wars including, civil wars in Germany and France, and wars between Protestant England and Catholic France and Spain.
More Effects of the Protestant / Counter Reformations
Overall, the Protestant Reformation and the Counter/Catholic Reformation changed the face of society in Europe. Before the Reformation, Europe was united behind a single faith, with a strong Church for guidance. By the end, Europe is divided religiously, and strong monarchs fill the leadership void left as a result of a weakened Catholic Church.