A&P Ch.14 Circulation of blood

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Arteries

(blood Vessel)
*Carry blood AWAY from heart TOWARD capillaries
*Red color/Have Oxygen
*Function: Distribute nutrients/gases carried in blood by way of HIGH PRESSURE

Veins

(Blood vessel)
*Carry blood TOWARD heart AWAY from capillaries
*Blue color/No oxygen
*Function: collect blood for return to heart

Capillaries

(Blood vessel)
*Microscopic vessels
*Carry blood from Arterioles to venules
*Function: serve as exchange vessels for nutrients,wastes,&fluids

Artery/vein Layers

1. Tunica Intima- Inner Layer(endothelium)
2.Tunica Media- middle layer /thick, smooth muscle(Blood pressure regulation)
3.Tunica Externa-outer layer/heavy

Disorders of Arteries

*Arteries must w/stand high pressure & remain free of blockage
*Arteriosclerosis,Aneurysm

Arteriosclerosis

*Hardening of arteries
*Lipids / other matter block arteries
*Thickening/calcification of arterial walls cause reduced blood flow

Ischemia

*Because of thickening/calcification (blood loss)
*May progress to necrosis (tissue death) then gangrene
*Tx: Vasodilators(vessel-relax. drugs)/Angioplasty(mechanical widening of vessels)

Aneurysm

*Abnormal widening of arterial wall
*Life-threatening

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)

Stroke- ischemia of brain tissue caused by emobolism(stuck)/hemorrhage

Disorders of Veins

*Low pressure vessels
1.Varicose Veins(varices)-enlarged veins blood pools
2. Hemorrhoids-Vericose veins in rectum
Tx: Surgical removal

Systemic Circulation

*Carries blood throughout body
*LV-Aorta-Sm Arteries-Arterioles-Capillaries-Venules-Vena Cavae-RA

Pulmonary Circulation

*Carries blood to & from lungs
*Deoxygenated blood-Lungs
*RV-Pulm.Arteries-Lungs-Pulm. Veins-LA

Blood Circulation

Flow of blood through vessels, arranges in complete circuit/circular pattern

Hepatic Portal Circulation

*Blood route through Liver
*After digestive organs Homeostasis

Fetal Circulation

Circulation before Birth

Blood Pressure

* "Push" force of blood in blood vessels
*Exists in all Blood Vessels (Highest) Arteries / (Lowest) Veins

Blood Pressure Gradient

"Hill"
*Cause blood to circulate High-Low pressure
*Low/Non-existent pressure -fatal if not tx

Hypertension (HTN)

*High Blood Pressure -pressure exceeds 140/90 mm Hg
*Can cause blood vessel to rupture
*Idiopathic
*Risk Factors: Genetics,age,stress,obesity
*Untreated: Heart disease,kidney failure,stroke

Factors that Influence Blood Pressure

1.Blood volume
2.Strength of heart contractions
3. Heart Rate
4.Blood Viscosity
5.Resistance to blood flow

Blood Volume

Large the volume more pressure exerted

Strength of Heart Contractions

*Affect Cardiac Output
*Stronger heart beat(increases) Weaker(decreases) pressure

Blood Viscosity

(Thickness)
Less than normal (Decreases) pressure
More than normal ( Increases) pressure

Resistance to blood flow

(Peripheral Resistance)
Vasomotor Mechanism- Vessel muscle contraction /relaxation

Central Venous pressure

*Pressure in Large Peripheral Veins
*Venous Return blood to Heart:
1.Strong beating Heart
2.Adequate Arterial Blood Pressure
3.Valves in Veins
4.Pumping Action/Skeletal Muscles as they contract
5.Changing Pressures in Chest Cavitities b/c breathing

Pulse

*Alternate expansion & recoil of blood vessel wall

Radial Pulse

Felt on wrist below thumb

Circulatory Shock

Failure of circulatory system to deliver oxygen to tissues resulting in cell impairment

Cardiogenic Shock

Heart failure

Neurgenic Shock

Nerve condition that relaxes (dialates) blood vessels

Anaphylactic Shock

Severe allergic reaction

Septic Shock

Complications of Septicemia
Toxins in blood b/c infection

Hypovelemic shock

Drop in blood pressure and blood volume

Volemic

volume of blood

Tourniquet

Pressure

1st blood vessel in

*Systemic-Aorta
*Pulmonary-Pulmonary artery

Lumen

Opening of vessels arteries

Systemic Arteries

1.Common Corotid - Head/Neck - Pulse
2. Aorta(Largest Artery)-Head/Neck/Upper Extremities

Systemic Veins

1.(Return Oxygen to Heart)
*Internal Jugular-Sinuses of brain
*External Jugular-Head/Neck
2.*Inferior Vena Cava -Lower Body vein
*Superior Vena Cava-Head/neck/Upper extremities vein

Venules

Small blood vessels collect blood from capillaries join to form veins

Angioplasty

Medical procedure vessels are opened

Ductus Arteriosus

Connect aorta & pulmonary artery

Gangrene

Necrotic tissue

Phlebitis

inflammation of vein

Polycythemia

Number RBC increase beyond normal blood viscosity

Pulmonary Embolism

Blockage of pulmonary artery by blood clot

Thrombi

abnormal blood clots

Fetal Cirulation

...

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Mechanical widening

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