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Chapter 12/13

aque/o

water

blephar/o

eyelid

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva- to join together

corne/o, kerat/o

cornea

ir/o, irid/o

iris- colored circle

lacrim/o, dacry/o

tear

ocul/o, ophthalm/o, opt/o

eye

phac/o, phak/o

lens- lentil

phot/o

light

presby/o

old age

retin/o

retina

scler/o

sclera- hard

vitre/o

glassy

-opia

condition of vision

anterior chamber

fluid filled space between the cornea and the iris

aqueous humor

water liquid secreted at the ciliary body that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens

humor

fluid

choroid

vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina

ciliary body

ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens

ciliary processes

epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor

conjunctiva

joining together; mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball

cornea

transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image

eyelid (palpebra)

movable protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye

fovea centralis

pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision

fundus (base)

interior surface of the eyeball including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature of the back of the eye)

iris

colored circle; colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil

lacrimal gland

gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears

lacrimal ducts

tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac

lens

transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina

lens capsule

capsule that encloses the lens

macula lutea

central region of the retina responsible for central vision; yellow pigment provides its color

lutea

yellow

nasolacrimal duct

passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose

optic disk

exit site of retinal nerve fibers, as well as the entrance point for retinal arteries and the exit point for retinal veins

optic nerve

nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain

posterior chamber

space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous filled with aqueous fluid

pupil

black circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye

retina

innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve

cones

cone-shaped cells within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light

rods

rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light

sclera

tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve

vitreous

jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye

asthenopia

eyestrain

asthenia

weak condition

blepharospasm

involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye, causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing

diplopia

double vision

exophthalmos, exophthalmus

abnormal protrusion of one or both eyeballs

lacrimation

secretion of tears

nystagmus

involuntary, rapid oscillating movement of the eyeball

nystagmos

a nodding

photophobia

extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light

scotoma

blind spot in the vision

skotos

darkness

refractive errors

defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina

astigmatism

distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina

hyperopia

farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays extend beyond the proper focus on the retina

myopia

nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays fall short of the proper focus on the retina

presbyopia

impaired vision owing to old-age loss of accommodation

accommodation

ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects

ambylopia

lazy eye- decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors or trauma; usually occurs in one eye

ambyl/o

dim

aphakia

absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

chalasis

a slackening

blepharoptosis

drooping of the eyelid usually caused by paralysis

chalazion

chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as swelling on the upper or lower eyelid

chalaza

hailstone

cataract

opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision

conjunctivitis

pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of the lacrimal gland

cyst/o

sac

dacryocystitis

inflammation of the tear sac

diabetic retinopathy

disease of the retina in diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation, leading to scarring and loss of vision

ectropion

outward turning of the rim of the eyelid

trop/o

turning

entropion

inward turning of the rim of the eyelid

glaucoma

group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision

hordeolum

sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid

hordeum

barley

iritis

inflammation of the iris

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

macular degeneration

breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision

pseudophakia

eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant

pseudo

false

pterygium

fibrous growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea

retinal detachment

separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically

retinitis

inflammation of the retina

strabismus

crossed eyes

eso-

inward

tropo

turning

scleritis

inflammation of the sclera

trichiasis

misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea

distance visual acuity

measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, typically using a Snellen chart

fluorescein angiography

visualization & photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye

ophthalmoscopy

use of an ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye

refraction

measurement of refractive errors using a phoropter to determine best corrective vision and prescription for eye glasses or contact lenses

phoropter

instrument that holds corrective lenses in front of the eye to determine optical correction

sonography

use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye such as foreign bodies or a detached retina

tonometry

use of a toneometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma

blepharoplasty

surgical repair of an eyelid

cataract extraction

excision of a cloudy lens from the eye

dacryocystectomy

excision of a lacrimal sac

enucleation

excision of an eyeball

iridectomy

excision of a portion of iris tissue

iridotomy

incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow for drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma

keratoplasty

corneal transplant

laser surgery

use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues

(LASIK)laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism

(IOL) intraocular lens implant

implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens

contact lens

small plastic curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea

eye instillation

introduction of medicated solution in the eye

eye irrigation

washing of the eye with water or other fluid

lacrimal sac

structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct

ciliary muscle

smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near-vision capability

acous/o, audi/o

hearing

aer/o

air or gas

aur/i, ot/o

ear

cerumin/o

wax

salping/o

eustachian tube

tympan/o, myring/o

eardrum

-acusis

hearing condition

pinna

auricle (little ear) projected part of the external ear

external auditory meatus (canal)

external passage for sounds collected from the pinna to the tympanum

cerumen

waxy substance secreted by glands

TM-tympanic membrane

eardrum

malleus

hammer, 1st of 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear

incus

anvil, middle of the 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear

stapes

stirrup, last of the 3 auditory ossicles of the middle ear

eustachian tube

tube connecting the middle ear to the pharynx

oval window

membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear

inner ear

structures and liquids that relay sound waves to the auditory nerve fibers

labyrinth

maze; inner ear consisting of bony and membranous labyrinths

cochlea

snail; coiled tubular structure of the inner ear

perilymph

fluid that fills the bony labyrinth of the ear

endolymph

fluid within the cochlear duct of the inner ear

semicircular canals

3 canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement

otalgia, otodynia

earache

otorrhagia

bleeding from the ear

otorrhea

purulent drainage from the ear

tinnitus

jingling; ringing or buzzing in the ear

vertigo

a turning around, dizziness

otitis externa

inflammation of the external auditory canal

cerumen impaction

excessive wax buildup

myrinitis, tympanitis

inflammation of the eardrum

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

aerotitis media

inflammation of the middle ear from changes in the atmospheric pressure

acoustic neuroma

benign tumor of the auditory nerve

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