Language of Medicine Chapter 5 Pathology of the Digestive System

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Anorexia

Lack of appetite

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

Borborygmus
plural: borborygmi

Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract

Constipation

Difficulty in passing stools (feces)

Diarrhea

Frequent passage of loose, watery stools

Dysphagia

Difficutly in swallowing

Eructation

Gass expelled from the stomach through the mouth

Flatus

Gas expelled through the anus

Hematochezia

Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum

Jaundice
(icterus)

Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood- hyperbilirubinemia

Melena

Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood

Nausea

Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit

Steatorrhea

Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter

Aphthous Stomatis

Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful uclers

Dental Caries

Tooth Decay

Herpetic Stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus

Oral Leukoplakia

White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth

Periodontal Disease

Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone

Achalasia

Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax

Esophageal Cancer

Malignant tumor of the esophagus

Esophageal Varices

Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus

Gastric Cancer

Malignant tumor in the stomach

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
(GERD)

Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach

Hernia

Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it

Peptic ulcer

Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum

Anal fistula

Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus

Colonic Polyps

Polyps (benign growths) protrued from the mucous membrane of the colon

Colorectal Cancer

Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both

Crohn disease (Chrone's)

Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon)

Diverticulosis

Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall

Dysentry

Painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infections

Hemorrhoids

Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region

Ileus

Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines

Paralytic Ileus

Acute, transient loss of peristalsis

Intussusception

Telescoping of the intestines

Irritable bowel sydrome (IBS)

Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension

Ulcerative Colitis

Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers

Volvulus

Twistin of the intestine on itself

Cholelithiasis

Gallstones in the gallbladder

Cirrhosis

Chronic degenerative disease of the liver

Pancreatic Cancer

Malignant tumor of the pancreas

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

Viral hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus

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