A & P II

Created by kirankhoja 

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Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Endocrine cells __________.

1. secrete into extracellular fluid
2. contain secretory vesicles
3. perform intercellular communication
4. Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Are composed of amino acids

Peptide hormones ___________.

1. always contain one sugar molecule
2. are lipid soluble
3. usually bind to intranuclear receptors
4. are composed of amino acids

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
released in response to a decrease in blood volume, an increase in the osmotic concentration of the plasma or presence of angiotensin II

Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. FSH
4. ADH

Thyroid

Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?

1. adrenal
2. salivary
3. thyroid
4. pituitary

Parathyroid hormone

__________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.

1. Estrogen
2. Thyroid hormone
3. Parathyroid hormone
4. Calcitonin

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. ADH
2. TSH
3. ACTH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland.

Pineal

The __________ gland secretes melatonin.

1. pineal
2. pituitary
3. neurohypophysis
4. thymus

Angiotensin

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. renin
2. calcitriol
3. angiotensin
4. erythropoietin

ALL of these hormones are required for normal growth.

Which of these hormones is required for normal growth?

1. growth hormone
2. insulin
3. thyroid hormone
4. All of these hormones are required for normal growth.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It produces melatonin.
3. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.
4. It promotes sleep.

Lowering blood sugar by insulin

Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

1. resistance to stress
2. lowering blood sugar by insulin
3. regulation of reproduction
4. regulation of growth

ADH, oxytocin and regulartory hormones
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
* Somatostatin
* Dopamine

What hormones are produced by the Hypothalamus?

Adenohypophsis (anterior lobe):
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH.
Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe): release of oxytocin and ADH

What hormones are produced by the Pituitary Gland?

Melatonin

What hormones are produced by the Pineal Gland?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What hormones are produced by the Parathyroid Glands on posterior surface of thyroid gland?

Natriuretic peptides:
-Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

What hormones are produced by the Heart?

Thyroxine (T4) (aka tetraiodothyronine)
Triiodothronine (T3)
Calcitonin (CT)

What hormones are produced by the Thyroid Gland?

Thymosins

What hormones are produced by the Thymus (undergoes atrophy during adulthood)?

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Calcitriol
renin

What hormones are produced by the Kidney?

Leptin

What hormones are produced by the Adipose Tissue?

Alpha Cells - Glucagon
Beta Cells - Insulin
Delta Cells - Somatostatin
Gamma cells - secrete pancreatic polypeptide

What hormones are produced by the Pancreatic Islets (islets of Langerhans)?

Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Compared the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.

1. more localized in action
2. more rapidly acting
3. briefer in action
4. Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Both statements are true.

In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it;
in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation.

Are these two statements true or FALSE?

1. Both statements are true.
2. The first is false; the second is true.
3. Both statements are false.
4. The first is true; the second is false.

Intranuclear

Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.

1. G-protein coupled
2. extracellular
3. transmembrane
4. intranuclear

parathyroid hormone

Which of these hormones is NOT derived from an amino acid?

1. thyroid hormone
2. epinephrine
3. parathyroid hormone
4. norepinephrine

hypothalamus

The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.

1. mesencephalon
2. thalamus
3. pons
4. hypothalamus

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. LH
4. ADH

Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit ALL of these signs.

Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?

1. elevated heart rate
2. elevated body temperature
3. elevated oxygen utilization
4. Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs.

Iodine

Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?

1. thorium
2. iron
3. calcium
4. iodine

The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.

Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is FALSE?

1. The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.
2. They secrete a peptide hormone.
3. It is posterior to thyroid.
4. There are usually four glands.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

zone reticularis; norepinephrine

Which of these is mismatched?

1. adrenal medulla; epinephrine
2. zona fasciculate; cortisol
3. zone reticularis; norepinephrine
4. zona glomerulosa; aldosteron

drowsiness

Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes EXCEPT __________.

1. elevated heart rate
2. drowsiness
3. elevated blood glucose level
4. elevated blood pressure

pinealocytes

Melatonin is secreted by __________.

1. pinealocytes
2. pituicytes
3. ovaries and testes
4. keratinocytes

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It promotes sleep.
3. It produces melatonin.
4. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

increased epinephrine secretion

A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses EXCEPT __________.

1. storage of glycogen
2. storage of triglycerides
3. increased epinephrine secretion
4. increased beta cell secretion

digestive enzymes

Which of these is NOT produced by pancreatic islet cells?

1. somatostatin
2. digestive enzymes
3. glucagon
4. insulin

cortisol

Which of these is NOT a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?

1. estradiol
2. cortisol
3. progesterone
4. testosterone

leptin

Adipose cells produce a hormone called ___ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.

1. leptin
2. insulin
3. adipin
4. renin

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. TSH
2. ACTH
3. ADH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland

angiotensin

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. erythropoietin
2. angiotensin
3. calcitriol
4. renin

55% (46% - 63%)

Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?

1. 55%
2. 65%
3. 45%
4. 38%

fibrinogen

Serum can't coagulate because the ______ has been removed.

1. albumin
2. protein C
3. immunoglobulin
4. fibrinogen

red bone marrow

The formed elements are largely produced within the __________.

1. liver
2. spleen
3. red bone marrow
4. thymus

erythropoietin

___ stimulates production of red blood cells.

1. calcitriol
2. erythropoietin
3. thymosin
4. renin

O

Which of these is NOT a surface antigen found on red blood cells?

1. O
2. B
3. A
4. Rh

monocyte

The largest white blood cell in circulation is the ____.

1. monocyte
2. eosinophil
3. neutrophil
4. lymphocyte

red bone marrow

Granulocytes are produced in _______.

1. the lymph nodes
2. white bone marrow
3. red bone marrow
4. the liver and spleen

platelets

Megakaryocytes are the source of _______.

1. most WBCs
2. neutrophils
3. platelets
4. RBCs

erythropoiesis phase

Which of these phases is NOT part of hemostasis?

1. vascular phase
2. platelet phase
3. erythropoiesis phase
4. coagulation phase

coagulation

The complex process that leads to the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen is called ______.

1. syneresis
2. fibrinogenesis
3. platelet adhesion
4. coagulation

lung

Which of these organs is NOT found in the mediastinum?

1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. lung
4. pericardial sac

right atrium

Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the ____.

1. right ventricle
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. left atrium

right atrium

Cardiac veins empty their blood into the __________.

1. left atrium
2. right atrium
3. left ventricle
4. right ventricle

calcium

During the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential, which ion is entering the cardiac muscle cell?

1. potassium
2. calcium
3. sodium
4. hydrogen

R

Which wave is the largest in the electrocardiogram?

1. P
2. R
3. Q
4. S

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the ____.

1. AV bundle
2. AV node
3. Purkinje fibers
4. SA node

closing of the mitral valve
[ventricular systole = the contraction of the heart ventricles. It begins with the first heart sound]

Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the aortic valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. opening of the aortic valve
4. closing of the mitral valve

The first is true; the second is false.

The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right; the left ventricle pumps more blood than the right. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood pressure

Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?

1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. blood pressure
4. end diastolic volume

increased end-systolic volume

Which of these responses by the heart will sympathetic stimulation NOT cause?

1. increased end-systolic volume
2. increased heart rate
3. increased cardiac output
4. increased stroke volume

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are _____.

1. capillaries
2. arterioles
3. tunica intima
4. arteries

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. right ventricle
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
4. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure

forces more fluid across the endothelium

Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure ____.

1. raises arterial pressure
2. lowers heart rate
3. raises heart rate
4. forces more fluid across the endothelium

medulla oblongata

Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

1. hypothalamus
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus

an increase in urine production

Hemorrhage triggers all of these responses EXCEPT __________.


1. release of the venous reserve
2. an increase in urine production
3. an increase in heart rate
4. an increase in erythropoiesis

deoxygenated; to

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

1. oxygenated; from
2. oxygenated; to
3. deoxygenated; to
4. deoxygenated; from

coronary

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the aortic arch?

1. left subclavian
2. left carotid
3. brachiocephalic
4. coronary

femoral

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the abdominal aorta?

1. iliac
2. femoral
3. splenic
4. renal

ligamentum arteriosum

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the _____.


1. fossa ovalis
2. foramen ovale
3. umbilical strand
4. ligamentum arteriosum

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging EXCEPT _______.

1. decrease in hematocrit
2. decrease in arterial wall stiffness
3. decrease in cardiac output
4. decrease in valve efficiency

decreased ADH secretion

In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes all these defenses EXCEPT _________.

1. increased peripheral resistance
2. increased heart rate
3. decreased ADH secretion
4. increased thirst

ALL OF THESE are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

1. heart rate
2. cardiac contractility
3. peripheral resistance
4. All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

the liver

Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.


1. the liver
2. lymph nodes
3. platelets
4. megakaryocytes

purified platelets

If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.

1. plasma
2. packed RBCs
3. whole blood
4. purified platelets

Q-T interval

The duration of the ventricular action potential is approximately equal to the __________ interval in the electrocardiogram.

1. QRS duration
2. Q-T interval
3. PR interval
4. ST interval

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the __________.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV node
3. SA node
4. AV bundle

left atrium

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the __________.

1. right atrium
2. pulmonary valve
3. pulmonary trunk
4. left atrium

end-systolic volume

The volume of blood remaining in the ventricle as diastole begins is called the __________.

1. stroke volume
2. cardiac reserve
3. end-systolic volume
4. end-diastolic volume

radial

The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.

1. axillary
2. digital
3. palmar
4. radial

transport clotting factors

An important function of thrombocytes is to __________.

1. transport clotting factors
2. transport thrombopoietin
3. transport nutrients
4. transport blood gases

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.


1. capillaries
2. tunica intima
3. arteries
4. arterioles

aortic

The __________ valve prevents backward flow of blood into the left ventricle.

1. bicuspid
2. aortic
3. tricuspid
4. pulmonic

precapillary sphincters

Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.

1. precapillary sphincters
2. thoroughfare channels
3. arteriovenous anastomoses
4. venules

They are abundant

Which of these statements about basophils is NOT true?

1. They promote inflammation.
2. They are cytoplasmic granules.
3. They are abundant.
4. They release histamine.

femoral arteries

Which of these arteries does NOT branch directly from the aorta?


1. left coronary artery
2. left carotid artery
3. femoral arteries
4. right coronary artery

hemoglobin

The most abundant protein in blood is __________.

1. hemoglobin
2. albumin
3. fibrinogen
4. immunoglobulin

All of these are formed elements of blood.

The formed elements of blood consist of _________.


1. red blood cells
2. platelets
3. white blood cells
4. All of these are formed elements of blood.

conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin

The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.

1. conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
2. release of PF-3
3. positive feedback of thrombin formation
4. adhesion of platelets to a damaged vessel wall

kidney

Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


1. brain
2. kidney
3. liver
4. adrenal

monocyte

The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

1. neutrophil
2. monocyte
3. lymphocyte
4. eosinophil

visceral pericardium

The epicardium is also known as the __________.

1. visceral pericardium
2. myocardium
3. endocardium
4. parietal pericardium

oxygenated; left

The pulmonary veins carry __________ blood to the __________ atrium.

1. deoxygenated; left
2. deoxygenated; right
3. oxygenated; left
4. oxygenated; right

clots slowly dissolve

During fibrinolysis __________.

1. clots slowly dissolve
2. fibrinogen is activated
3. damaged tissue is pulled together
4. emboli form

elastic

Arteries have a tissue in their middle and internal vessel walls that veins lack, called __________ tissue.

1. elastic
2. smooth muscle
3. endothelial
4. adventitial

neutrophils

The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes

The pH is slightly acidic.

EXCEPT for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

1. It contains about 55% plasma.
2. The viscosity is three to five times greater than water.
3. It contains dissolved gases.
4. The pH is slightly acidic.

B positive

A person with a type A positive blood type can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.

1. B positive
2. O positive
3. A negative
4. A positive

protein

EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

1. protein
2. glucose
3. sodium ion
4. water

Both statements are true.

The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first statement is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first statement is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

Peripheral resistance depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT __________.


1. blood viscosity
2. blood vessel diameter
3. blood vessel length
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure

red blood cells

Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. megakaryocytes
3. red blood cells
4. neutrophil

increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?

1. decreased cardiac output
2. coronary arteriosclerosis
3. decreased ejection fraction
4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

120 days

Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.

1. 1 year
2. 1 day
3. 120 days
4. 30 days

b) enzyme

Which of the following is NOT a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

a) neural
b) enzyme
c) hormonal
d) humoral

d) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP.

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone actin operates by _______.

a) not responding to a feedback mechanism
b) synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
c) increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
d) binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP.

c) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by________.

a) causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure
b)exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
c) entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
d) acting to decrease basal metabolic rate

c) epinephrine

Which of the following is NOT a steroid-based hormone?

a) estrogen
b) cortisone
c) epinephrine
d) aldosterone

c) 7.35 - 7.45

What is the average normal pH range of blood?

a) 4.65 - 4.75
b) 8.35 - 8.45
c) 7.35 - 7.45
d) 7.75 - 7.85

b) O

Which blood type is called the universal donor?

a) AB
b) O
c) A
d) B

c) fibrinolysis

Which of the following is NOT a phase of hemostasis?

a)coagulation
b) platelet plug formation
c) fibrinolysis
d) vascular spasm

c) They are nucleated

Which of the following is chracteristic of all leukocytes?

a) They have cytoplasmic granules
b) They are phagocytic
c) They are nucleated
d) They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood.
d) all of the above

b) suspension

Blood is a ________.

a) homogeneous compound
b) suspension
c) heterogeneous compound
d) colloid

c) left atrium

Blood within) the pulmonary veins returns to the ____.

a) right atrium
b) right ventricle
c) left atrium
d) left ventricle

c) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

Select the correct statement about the heart valves.

a) The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.
b) Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow fo blood into the heart.
c) The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
d) The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

c) pumps blood against a greater resistance

The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker that the right ventricle reveals that it ____.

a) sends blood through a smaller valve
b) pumps a greater volume of blood
c) pumps blood against a greater resistance
d) expands the thoracic cage

b) papillary muscles

Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ______.

a) trabeculae carneae
b) papillary muscles
c) pectinate muscles
d) venae cavae

b) Ventricles are in diastole

Which of the events below does NOT occur when the semilunar valves are open?

a) Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta
b) Ventricles are in diastole
c) Ventricles are in systole
d) AV valves are closed

c) atrial depolarization

The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ______.

a) ventricular
b) ventricular repolarization
c) atrial depolarization
d) atrial repolarization

d) coronary arteries

The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the _____.

a) coronary veins
b) fossa ovalis
c) coronary sinus
d) coronary arteries

c) decreased delivery of oxygen

If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ____.

a) a lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways
b) a decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production
c) decreased delivery of oxygen
d) an inadequate supply of lactic acid

a) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute

If the vagal nerves to the heart were cut, the result would be that _____.

a) the heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
b) parasympathetic stimulation would increase, causing a decrease in heart rate
c) the AV node would become the pacemaker of the heart
d) the heart would stop, since the vagal nerves trigger the heart to contract

b) pulmonary trunk

Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?

a) venae cavae
b) pulmonary trunk
c) pulmonary veins
d) aorta

b) nitric acid

Which of the followingchemicals does NOT help regulate blood pressure?

a) ADH
b) nitric acid
c) atrial natriuretic peptide
d) angiotension II

b) capillaries

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of _______.

a) arterioles
b) capillaries
c) arteries
d) veins

d) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

The pulse pressure is _______.

a) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure
b) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)
c) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
d) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

c) tunica intima

Histologically, the ______ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.

a) tunica externa
b) tunica adventitia
c) tunica intima
d) tunica media

d) urinary output

Factors that aid venous return include all EXCEPT ____.

a) pressure changes in the thorax
b) activity of skeletal muscles
c) venous valves
d) urinary output

a) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm

A thrombus (blood clot) in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the _____.

a) right side of the head and neck and right upper arm
b) left upper arm
c) left side of the head and neck
d) myocardium of the haert

d) changes in arterial pressure

the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

a) an increase in oxygen levels
b) a decrease in oxygen levels
c) a decrease in carbon dioxide
d) changes in arterial pressure

a) lymph nodes

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed _____.

a) lymph nodes
b) axillary nodes
c) lymph follicles
d) cisterna chyli
b)

b) pancreas

Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lymphatic structure?

a) tonsils
b) pancreas
c) Peyer's patches of the instestine
d) spleen

a) skeletal muscle contrations and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement

Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ______.

a) skeletal muscle contrations and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
b) contraction of the vessels themselves
c) the pumping action of the heart
d) two-way valves

c) plasma cells

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ______.

a) lymph nodes
b) medullary cords
c) plasma cells
d) T lymphocytes

d) severe localized edema distal to the blockage

When the lymphatic structures are blocked due to tumors, the result is ______.

a) increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal to the blockage
b) abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
c) shrinkage of tissues distal to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph
d) severe localized edema distal to the blockage

d) lingual tonsils

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ____.

a) palatine tonsils
b) pharyngeal tonsils
c) Peyer's tonsils
d) lingual tonsils

c) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

a) exposure to an antigen
b) booster shot of vaccine
c) passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
d) infusion of weakened viruses

a) Macrophages

________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.

a) Macrophages
b) B cells
c) Eosinophils
d) Basophils

c) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

what is the role of the interferon in defense against disease?

a) activates the complement mechanism
b) protects cells that have not yet been infected by bacteria
c) protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses
d) activates the inflammatory process

a) function in the adaptive immune system activation

Helper T cells _____.

a) function in the adaptive immune system activation
b) often function to decrease the immune response
c) release B7 proteins
d) bind tightly to target cells and release a lymphotoxin called perforin

a) natural killer cells

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by _____.

a) natural killer cells
b) T lymphocytes
c) pinocytosis
d) B lymphocytes

d) Antigens only come from microbes

Which of the statements below does NOT describe antigens?

a) antigrens exhibit immunogenicity and reactivity.
b) antigens can include proteins, nucleic acids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins, and certain large polysaccharides.
c) the parts of antigen molecules that initiate immune responses are called epitopes or antigenic determinants
d) Antigens only come from microbes

foreman ovule

What structure in the fetal heart allows blood to flow from the right atrium directly to the left atrium?

tri-cuspid

The ____ valve of the heart has three valves with chordae tendineae.

left subclavin

the third major branch of the aortic _____ artery.

pulse

____ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.

aortic value

Prevents backflow into the left ventricle.

mitral valve

Prevents backflow into the left atrium.

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